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2018
Friday, April 20th
12:45 PM

A Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth and Treatment Using Virotherapy

Jessica Stevens, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Zachary Abernathy, Ph.D., and Kristen Abernathy, Ph.D.

West 221

12:45 PM

We present a system of four nonlinear ordinary differential equations to model the use of virotherapy as a treatment for cancer. This model specifically describes the interactions among infected tumor cells, uninfected tumor cells, effector T-cells, and virions. Using local and global stability analysis techniques, we establish conditions on model parameters to ensure a stable cure state of the full model as well as various submodels. We illustrate these dynamics through numerical simulations of the model using estimated parameter values from the literature, and we conclude with a discussion on the biological implications of our results.

All Talk, But No Action: A Reexamination of Education in South Carolina’s “Corridor of Shame”

LaRaven Temoney, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

West 214

12:45 PM

South Carolina’s “Corridor of Shame” is an area of rural and poverty-stricken communities that stretches along Interstate 95. This area has received large amounts of media attention since the release of a documentary, entitled Corridor of Shame – The Neglect of South Carolina’s Rural Schools, about it and a visit from then Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama. In 2014, the Supreme Court of the State of South Carolina ruled that a “minimally adequate” education was not ensured for these school districts. However, no major legislative action has been taken to equalize the educational playing field. The purpose of this research project is to analyze whether or not changes were made that had positive effects on the overall quality of education. Examining different variables (e.g. poverty index, absolute rating, teacher salaries), and other available data shows that a “minimally adequate” education has still not been provided for all students and has contributed to the continuous economic instability in these areas.

Color Vision and Its Relationship to Design

Keri Rousey, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; Darren Ritzer, Ph.D.; Matthew Stern, Ph.D.; G. David Brown, M.A.; and Matej Latin

DIGS 220

12:45 PM

In print and digital communications, color plays an important role in how a message is received, even if it happens subconsciously. Through my own research about color and communication, I will learn how color blindness and color theory impact the way people create design and how their audiences interpret those designs. Through the use of scientific data, research, and help from advisors in fields related to this topic, my goal is to make design more accessible and enjoyable for people with disadvantages such as colorblindness. Through research I will delve into the science of regular vision, as well as color vision. In order to make it both entertaining but serious and educational, I plan to create charts and data visualizations that will make the information more enjoyable. The use of charts will help the reader understand and visualize what the information is saying, as well as understand how other people may see and interpret colors and objects.

How Differing Cultural Attitudes towards Leisure Affect How Travel is Marketed towards American versus French Audiences

Emily Leamy, Winthrop University

West 219

12:45 PM

In 2016, Americans as a whole forfeited 206 million of their paid vacation days, which numbered from zero to an average of 16 days per person in the private sector. Conversely, French workers receive approximately 31 paid vacation days a year, and 89 percent of their population takes their vacation days. Because of this obvious cultural difference in regards to vacation time, tourism companies need to vary their marketing cross-culturally to these audiences. Consumers in general are motivated to travel from both external and internal sources, and previous studies and literature prove that these motivations are taken into account when planning marketing strategies. However, literature has yet to investigate how consumers’ cultural attitudes towards leisure time affect how travel is marketed. This research seeks to understand how cultural differences in attitudes towards leisure time affect how travel is marketed cross-culturally, specifically towards French versus American audiences. Through a content analysis and cross-cultural consumer survey, we will analyze the differences in cultural attitudes towards work and leisure time, determining if they affect marketing strategies taken by tourism companies towards French and American audiences. This study will serve as information for tourism companies that market towards French and American audiences, as well as marketing professionals who seek information on cross-cultural approaches to the field.

The Letters of Paul in Regard to Women’s Leadership

Morgan Welch, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Peter Judge, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

12:45 PM

For my research paper, I have compared what biblical scholars note as the authentic and inauthentic letters of Paul and examined how these letters differ in their attitudes towards women’s roles in church leadership. Romans, 1-2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon are noted as Paul’s authentic letters and are typically seen as portraying a message that is quite radical in embracing the equality of all people that are in Christ. In contrast, the inauthentic letters – Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1-2 Timothy, and Titus – seem to convey a more conservative and gender-exclusive message that contradicts Paul’s previously written authentic letters. I have examined passages from Paul’s authentic letters in order to demonstrate how he himself gives support to the spiritual gifts of women and lifts them up as worthy contributors to the life of the Church. Conversely, I have chosen specific passages from inauthentic letters to shed light on how later schools of Pauline thought worked to regain the patriarchy of their culture by suppressing the leadership of women. After setting the historical background for understanding Paul’s letters, I then go on to examine how the Church Universal is still divided over the discussion of women’s rights in concerns to church leadership. My goal is not to deem the inauthentic letters “wrong” and the authentic letters “right,” but instead, I hope the reader will understand the complexity of Paul’s letters in order to realize that the topic of women’s equality in the church has been and still continues to be controversial among believers of the past and present.

The Power of the Poppy: Identifying the Key Factors Fueling Opium Cultivation and Production in the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle

Jacob Lambeck, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Michael Lipscomb, Ph.D., and Jennifer Disney, Ph.D.

DIGS 114

12:45 PM - 1:00 PM

Considered at one time to be as valuable as gold, opium and its derivatives, some legal and some illegal, have become ever-present in both the medical field and the criminal underworld. As production of these substances increases, so too does their societal impact. This paper explores the two major regions of the world where a majority of opium and opium derivatives are produced: the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. An array of distinct similarities are shared between the two regions and highlighted in this paper. My findings indicate four major factors that influence opium production: a history of imperial control, high levels of poverty, ineffective government policies, and the presence of heavily armed, highly organized criminal organizations. Each factor by itself indicates a major issue, but combined they form a chain of crime and human suffering that extends back over 500 years to the first influx of predatory European trade. Impoverished farmers, out of necessity, grew opium which was then purchased and processed by criminal organizations. These organizations thrived under the ineffective policies enacted by the governments of the regions. The goal of this research is to explore and unravel the mutually reinforcing factors that form a Gordian knot of crime, poverty, and narcotics trafficking in these two regions, the effects of which hold major implications, both national and international.

The Representation of Southern Identity in Fictional Southern Literature

Kat Yoffie, Winthrop University

DIGS 222

12:45 PM

This research looks at a cross-section of literary studies and social science when comparing the literature of the South and how it represents the Southern identity as it has evolved through time. This research uses studies and analysis put forth by some of the leading Southern scholars and focuses primarily on the South’s history and evolving Southern identity during three distinct time periods: the 1850s-1900s, the 1900s-1950s, and the 1950s to the present. Representative novels having plots that take place during those time periods were also chosen to use as evidence that fictional novels largely reflect the social science behind Southern identity; those novels are Cold Mountain, All the King’s Men, and Go Set a Watchman. Although there are many types of Southern identities, as the population grows larger and more diverse, this research focuses on the white male Southern identity and its reflection in the aforementioned texts. This work is significant because it illustrates that, at least in the case of Southern identity and Southern literature, the fictional texts are reflective of the Southern identity at the time they represent.

12:57 PM

Uncharted Maps

KayAnna Mahon, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A., and G. David Brown, M.A.

DIGS 220

12:57 PM

Uncharted Maps is a series of posters of four different cities untraveled or unexplored by me. These posters will combine both iconic/touristy elements and the local treasures to create a sense of wanderlust for those like myself who have also not traveled to these cities. The posters will also create a sense of nostalgia for those from these cities who are no longer living there. I will screen print four four-color posters and make a postcard for each one. In addition, I will create an overall brand that will be carried through the packaging and collateral for the brand. It will be important for these to have a cohesive look and feel, most of which comes from general layout and map design. I have developed the street maps for each of the four cities, all with a consistent amount of information that reinforces the idea of a series. The traditional function of maps is to communicate; whether that is communicating clear directions, or an indication of the city's look and feel. The street map element will resonate more with those from these specific cities; but for people like myself who haven’t traveled there, it adds a visual element and secondary information. It is important that each poster stays true to each individual city, but also resonates and makes a connection with different users.

1:00 PM

Crises of Identity: Uncovering the Roots of Ethnic Division in Lviv

Jessica E. Doscher, Winthrop University

DIGS 222

1:00 PM

As the crisis in eastern Ukraine continues to expand, there has been much discussion about how to address both the influence of outside political actors like Russia as well as the actors within the borders of Ukraine itself. From the continued fighting in the Donbass region to the annexation of Crimea several years ago, Ukraine has found itself embroiled in a bitter conflict, driven in large part by the ethnic ties of its citizens in the eastern region of the country. The conflict between ethnic ties and national identity in Ukraine is hardly new. In the past century alone, control of Ukraine has been chaotic and divisive. The city of Lviv in western Ukraine, for example, changed hands several times in the past hundred years, creating a unique development of identity in the city and subsequent clashes. To fully understand the current conflict that continues to unfurl itself in the eastern portion of Ukraine, one must realize the significance of the historical struggle between ethnicities and nationalities at the hands of those entities that have controlled or influenced Ukraine during the past century. By using Lviv as an example, it becomes obvious that the relative uncertainty with which ethnic groups operated and the ranging attempts by those in power to destroy various ethnic and national identities helped to create a suspended and unsure state for many ethnic groups even today, a tension that has boiled over to create the full-blown crisis that Ukraine still faces.

Inducing Myogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells through Culture with Epigenetic Modifier 5-Azacytidine

Elizabeth McAbee, Winthrop University

West 221

1:00 PM

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capability to differentiate into one or more cell lineages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent, mesenchymal stem cells that are located within the microvasculature of adipose tissue. Although ADSCs have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, there has been little documented success in differentiating ADSCs into myogenic lineages, specifically skeletal muscle. Many of the reports of skeletal myogenic differentiation of ADSCs have relied on a protocol that includes treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine. In addition, previous work in our lab suggests that culture with 5-azacytidine induces the expression of genes associated with enhanced developmental potency. Thus, we hypothesized that a myogenic induction protocol that includes treatment with 5-azacytidine in combination with horse serum and low-glucose DMEM would result in the myogenic differentiation of ADSCs into skeletal myoblasts and myotubes. To test our hypothesis, we employed real-time PCR to monitor changes in the expression of genes that regulate myogenic differentiation and immunofluorescent staining to detect the appearance of myotubes. Future work will include replicating this experiment with ADSCs grown in/on a variety of substrates that are expected to further enhance myogenic differentiation. The ability to induce myogenic differentiation of ADSCs would allow ADSCs to serve as a plentiful source of myogenic cells for skeletal muscle tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

Internship and Research Impacts on Biology Students’ Aptitude for Postgrduate Success

Zina Weaver, Winthrop University

West 219

1:00 PM

In recent years, there has been frequent discussion concerning whether undergraduate programs are adequately preparing students for their respective careers or postgraduate endeavors. Internship experiences are being explored as one form of preparation. In one study, business alumni rated previous internship experience as having better prepared them for their careers compared to academic curricula in measures that are frequently valued by employers, such as relationship building and creative thinking. Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated that resumes with internship experiences had a 14% increase in the rate of interview requests for business positions. Internship experience has been demonstrated to benefit students across a variety of undergraduate disciplines with varying demographics. At Winthrop University, biology students are not required to participate in internships in order to graduate; however, they can earn course credit for internships within their curriculum. Therefore, this survey study was completed to determine if senior biology students at Winthrop University felt like they had obtained skills associated with post-graduate success and whether this was correlated with previous internship experience. The hypothesis was that students with internship experience would report a higher comfort level with soft skills and therefore, better career preparation. These results were then compared to student demographics to see if there was a significant relationship.

Pas de deux: The Language of Classical Ballet

Sarah Golzari, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Scott Shinabargar, Ph.D.

DIGS 114

1:00 PM

As a traditionally European art form, ballet is neither widely practiced nor studied by many dancers in the United States in comparison to other countries. As both a French major and ballet dancer, my goal for this project is to highlight the history of ballet, and the use of French language within its technique, exposing the audience to the rich tradition of a classic and expressive art form. After a brief discussion of the history of classical ballet and its French origins, I will present a video demonstrating the ways in which the French language functions as a tool for artistic expression within an art form, and contrasting it with its use in communication by native French speakers. Furthermore, the video includes several pieces from ballets choreographed by French dancers, along with some basic ballet steps performed by me, and supplementary text explaining the French meaning behind each given term. For example, most people have heard the term “plié” (to bend) used in the context of ballet, but how does this compare to the way it is used in everyday French? How else could the word be interpreted, and how would these other interpretations affect our perception of the movement? By exposing the audience to the various nuances and cultural connotations of the French language used within the art form, I hope to provide a deeper knowledge and appreciation of classical ballet from a global perspective.

Promoting a President: Tone in Presidential Candidate Correspondence via Twitter

Eva Owusu, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Sabrina Habib, Ph.D.

West 214

1:00 PM

The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the changes of integrated marketing communications in a political environment and the impact of different tones in a presidential campaign. Using the Twitter correspondence of the Republican and Democratic nominees, a content analysis was used to discover positive and negative tones and themes during the 2016 presidential election. Data were collected from the end of the primary elections to election day in November 2016. This research also builds on previous studies focused on the growing impact of social media in political communications. The findings from this study include: (1) Hillary Clinton tweeted at Donald Trump more frequently then he tweeted at her. (2) Hillary Clinton had mostly neutral twitter correspondence towards Donald Trump, who in return used a more negative tone. (3) The theme of Clinton’s tweets were in reference to the character and qualifications of Donald Trump, while the majority of Trump’s tweets toward Clinton referenced her character. (4) The majority of the candidates’ tweets that referenced each other’s character and qualifications were negative.

The Amazonian Queen: Marriage as a Weapon of the Patriarchy in A Midsummer Night’s Dream

Mary Bordonaro, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Fike, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

1:00 PM

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to explore the connections between the fictional queens Hippolyta and Titania and Queen Elizabeth I, and to build upon these connections to understand the effect that these characters have on Shakespeare’s modern female audience. I build upon the idea of Hippolyta’s “process of domestication” put forward by Kathryn Schwarz in “Tragical Mirth: Framing Shakespeare’s Hippolyta” and the eternal nature of the legacy of queens as told by Susan Frye in “Spectres of Female Sovereignty in Shakespeare’s Plays” in order to give new meaning to the life of Elizabeth I as told by Alison Weir. Queen Hippolyta in A Midsummer Night’s Dream acts as a symbol of the masculine drive to conquer and diminish powerful women through marriage, a situation that is directly connected to the struggles of Queen Elizabeth I regarding marriage, autonomy, and authority. Queen Hippolyta can be seen as an Elizabeth who marries and submits to her husband, while Queen Titania can be seen as an Elizabeth who tries, and fails, to retain her autonomy and power after marriage. The result of these connections is a further understanding of not only Queen Elizabeth I, but also of the power that men hold in marriage and sex, even in our modern society, as seen by the recent prominence of #metoo and the outing of a variety of rapists and harassers in Hollywood.

1:09 PM

Redefining Society's Beauty Standards

Susanna McCray, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; Gerry Derksen, M.Des.; and Jesse Weser, M.A.

DIGS 220

1:09 PM

Conversations about the perception of beauty are evolving. Are standards changing? Is society adjusting? What impact do attitudes have on the culture? For my senior design thesis, I intend to push the conversation in myriad directions. I want to spark a conversation about societal and individual beauty experiences. Secondly, I want to show people that diversity should be a staple, not a training exercise or a one-time special topic of conversation. Lastly, I want to encourage women everywhere to be supportive and uplifting toward each other. This is the real world and it's all beautiful. True diversity in the “beauty industry” has such a twisted position and, while tides are rising and changing ferociously, I feel continual conversation will add more momentum to the effort of molding lasting societal influence. This social campaign titled The Beauty Standard redefines society's standards of beauty by encouraging women to view themselves, differences and all, as the standard. This project involves an extensive social media campaign equipped with bold statements and visuals that provoke conversation and spark spontaneous encouragement among women. Taking cues from podcasts, blogs, and forums, one of the main avenues I chose was that of storytelling and active conversation. The physical attributes of this project include creating a website and blog that feature the various interview conversations and insights along with the campaign collateral I have created. The various aspects of this project, including the social media campaign, website design, photography, advertisements, and other campaign touchpoints, are all areas that I have interest and expertise in as a graphic designer and creative. I believe this conversation about beauty standards and their impact is important to have if we intend to foster a better environment that promotes self-love and encouragement among women, and I am excited to see the impact of this project.

1:15 PM

Evaluation of the Effect of Oct4 Expression on the Developmental Potency of Murine Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Madeline Diaz, Winthrop University

West 221

1:15 PM

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cellular lineages. This ability of cells to differentiate is known as potency. These cells are of particular interest to the field of regenerative medicine, as they present an opportunity for highly effective therapy. However, the cells most suited for clinical applications are embryonic stem cells, which are highly controversial. One method of overcoming this controversy is by using induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs). These cells can be generated by overexpressing a cocktail of transcription factors in non-pluripotent cells, one of which is Oct4. Oct4 is a member of the POU transcription factor family. Its unique structural components allow it to not only bind DNA, but also recruit additional transcription factors to elicit a cellular response. When Oct4 expression is upregulated, the expression of genes involved in stem cell pluripotency is also upregulated and developmental potency is enhanced. The work described here had two specific aims. The first was to clone the Oct4 gene into the pGene plasmid of the Invitrogen GeneSwitch™ System. The second aim was to use that plasmid in conjunction with the other components of the system in murine adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) to enhance developmental potency. Preliminary findings indicate that the Oct4 gene has been successfully cloned into the pGene plasmid. Further investigation of this system may provide an alternate, less controversial opportunity for stem-cell-based regenerative therapy.

Hispanic Immigrant Mothers and Their Children's Education

Ana Karen Castellanos, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Stephen Smith, Ph.D.

DIGS 222

1:15 PM

This project centers around the immigrant experience in education. Initially, my question focused on students’ immigration status and whether or not it affected their academic achievement. I wanted to place the Hispanic immigrant mother at the center of this question because previous studies about the experience of undocumented youth centered the students. Using qualitative interviews with twelve Hispanic immigrant mothers, six in Rock Hill School District and six in Greenville county, I asked them about their involvement with their children’s education and their opinions on how documentation status affects the educational experiences of their children. My hypothesis was that this demographic of mothers would be involved in a limited way in their children’s education and that immigration status would negatively affect the educational achievement of undocumented students who are discouraged by the legal barriers to higher education. My findings show that documentation status does not necessarily discourage undocumented students from academic achievement, and that the limited participation of their mothers stems from systemic barriers in place before their existence, similar to the fourth face of power which examines the power or lack thereof stemming from the creation of the subjects.

Incorporating Academic Blogging into a Fifth Grade Classroom: Integrating Technology and Science into Literacy Instruction

Cassidy Tallman, Winthrop University

West 214

1:15 PM

There is a growing need to better prepare students for twenty-first-century literacy demands. Integrating technology into education improves student achievement and increases students’ technological literacy. Classroom blogging is one way to provide students authentic experiences with technology while integrating literacy. The goal of this project was to examine fifth graders’ interactions with text, fifth graders’ perceptions of academic blogging, and science content integration in literacy instruction. Over the course of seven weeks, students participated in shared reading lessons and blogging sessions. Data were collected on students’ acquisition of science content knowledge, students’ interactions with text, and students’ perceptions of technology integration. Findings revealed that students reported positive experiences with text when using technology, and students’ knowledge of science content increased.

Medieval Courtship and Marriage Dynamics

Samantha Lee, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Dufresne, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

1:15 PM

This paper looks at courtship and marriage dynamics during the Middle Ages, focusing on the treatment of women. Laws were provided by the church and state, but were carried out in a way that contributed to the systematic repression of women at the time, and often contradicted themselves. Between their families and aggressive suitors, women lived in a society pitted against them.

The Extra Mile: A Student-Led, Campus-Wide Initiative

Jennie Montgomery, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Leah Kendall, M.Ed., and Kristen Abernathy, Ph.D.

DIGS 114

1:15 PM

At Winthrop University, one mile separates main campus from the athletic complex. This distance creates not only a physical gap, but a metaphorical disconnect between student life and the Winthrop Athletic program. While this strain has notable consequences for the success of athletic teams, a broader impact is found on the culture of the institution at large. With the impact on engagement and retention in focus, this research not only explores increasing student buy-in to Winthrop’s athletic culture, but measures how this buy-in affects the campus culture. For research purposes, the study narrows the focus to student buy-in to the Winthrop Men’s Basketball program and proposes a means for engagement through the implementation of a student-led, campus-wide initiative called “The Extra Mile.” This research study assesses the initiative by measuring its impact on student connection to peers, athletics, and Winthrop University at large.

Workplace Sabbaticals: A History, Current Practice, and Propositions for Future Research

Suzannah Way, Winthrop University

West 219

1:15 PM

According to the Society for Human Resource Management, approximately 17% of companies in 2017 reported having some form of sabbatical program as a part of their benefits packages. However, to date, there is very little research on the topic of workplace sabbaticals for corporate and non-academic jobs. The purpose of this study is to learn more about the history and aims of workplace sabbaticals, to better understand the elements of sabbatical programs that are likely to inform their effectiveness, and to develop propositions for future research on workplace sabbaticals. The study starts with a review of the existing literature on workplace sabbaticals. Then, it examines the structural parameters of sabbaticals offered by 103 employers (e.g., purpose, length, eligibility, compensation, training and preparation, acceptable use of time during sabbatical, intended benefits, return on investment). Finally, using literature on stress, recovery and creativity, and corporate social responsibility, I develop propositions for future research into corporate sabbatical programs.

1:21 PM

The Possession of Zedaale: A World-Building Project

Fallon Oswald, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A., and G. David Brown, M.A.

DIGS 220

1:21 PM

Whether it’s a videogame, a fantastical movie, or a series of novels, the creation and exploration of the world is crucial to establishing the believability of a story. If the world makes sense on its own, the story is more apt to be believed. I will create a collection of images of landscapes, beings, and creatures and combine them into a book to explain a world of my own creation. The book will explore the fantasy world of Srotale about 50 years after it collides with the demon realm, Zedaale. It will explore the conflicting landscapes of Srotale and Zedaale as they’ve merged, as well as a small collection of the beings who exist there, including the 7 princes of Zedaale, the man responsible for the collision of the planes of Zedaale and Srotale, and additional buildings and items that connect to the lore of the world.

1:30 PM

Developmental Milestones' Relationship to Second Language Learning

Michaela Sanford, Winthrop University

DIGS 222

1:30 PM

The purpose of this research is to discuss the relationship of cognitive, linguistic, perceptual, and social-emotional milestones with their collective facilitation of second language learning (L2L) for various age ranges. While it is generally agreed that learning two languages from birth is the most efficient way to attain equal competency in both languages, most children are not raised bilingually. Therefore, this research describes the capability of young children to recognize and produce the preferred speech accent for languages that are not native to them. By contrast, post-pubescent teenagers and adults usually have a more difficult time hearing and repeating various non-native speech sounds. Their main advantage is their complete, or mostly complete, cognitive development, which helps them to process and learn the language’s syntax more quickly, at least for initial learning. From the conclusions drawn about the milestones’ facilitation of L2L, benefits and drawbacks of L2L during each age group are explained, and optimal teaching methods for each age are proposed. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of an immersion environment are discussed for L2L, as compared to the traditional learning environment. The overall conclusion for L2L is that, while each age group has different strengths and weaknesses, as does each child, students of any age can learn a second language.

Generational Differences in Perceptions of Interracial, Interpolitical, and Interreligious Relationships

Caitlan Boudreaux, Winthrop University

DIGS 221

1:30 PM

Previous research in this series suggested that young adults feel positively toward interracial, interreligious, and inter-political relationships. They were especially supportive of interracial relationships and most concerned about interreligious pairings. When asked how their parents would feel, these young adults believed that their parents would agree with their stance on religious similarities, but would be less accepting of interracial relationships than their generation. In order to investigate this idea, I am examining young, middle, and older adults' perceptions of interracial, interreligious, and interpolitical relationships. Participants are currently being recruited through an online format. Each participant will respond to a scale that assesses attitudes toward interracial romantic relationships. Participants will then respond to the same scale; however, “interracial” will be replaced with “interreligious.” Interreligious is defined as two people of different religious belief systems. Participants will encounter the same questions, but this time they will refer to an “interpolitical” relationship, defined as two people with different political belief systems. Participants will also rank how important race, politics, and religion are when choosing a romantic partner. My goal is to compare different age groups' views on this topic in order to find out if there are major generational differences in acceptance levels.

Justin Peck and American Ballet

Hannah Leonard, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Emily Morgan, M.F.A.

DIGS 114

1:30 PM

Within the past decade, New York City Ballet’s choreographer-in-residence, Justin Peck, has created a number of ballets for the company, as well as for companies across the country. Peck’s works are truly innovative, and capture the meaning of American ballet by pushing the limits set in the past, and by using ingenious concepts and choreography. This paper will explore how American ballet was developed and carried by George Balanchine for the majority of the twentieth century, and how it is currently being led by Justin Peck through his own works. The focus of this paper is to follow the shift that American ballet took in the years after Balanchine up until Peck emerged, and how Peck is currently influencing this “style” of ballet. To show the alteration of ballet from Balanchine to Peck, rehearsal and performance footage, as well as interviews and documentaries will be used to research the innovation and revolution of American ballet.

The Coprime Graph of Groups

Alan Way, Winthrop University

West 221

1:30 PM

Recently, investigation of the coprime graph of a group was initiated. The coprime graph of a group is a graph with vertices as group elements and an edge between two vertices if and only if their order (in the group) is relatively prime. We will explore chromatic, clique, and independence number for certain classes of finite groups. In addition, we classify which abelian groups give rise to perfect coprime graphs. We obtain a partial result on the class of nonabelian groups.

The Influence of Daily Leisure Activities on Stress and Work-Family Balance

Michael Szeman, Winthrop University

West 219

1:30 PM

For many years, work-life literature has focused almost exclusively on the interaction between the work and family domains, without much consideration for the time spent in-between. This daily diary study examines the influence of time spent engaged in daily leisure activities on the health and well-being of full-time workers through its observed effect on daily mood, as well as day-to-day perceptions of stress, work-family conflict (WFC), and work-family balance (WFB). This study contributes to previous literature by providing day-level analysis of these variables, thereby offering a closer examination of their interrelated natures. Building on research on mood repair and stress recovery, we hypothesize that time spent on daily leisure is positively associated with positive affect (PA) and perceptions of WFB, and negatively associated with negative affect (NA) and perceptions of stress and WFC.

The Validity and Reliability of Using Pinterest as a Source for Early Childhood Math Lesson Plans

Cali Lewis, Winthrop University

West 214

1:30 PM

The primary goal of this research paper is to communicate the findings of eighty-four quantitative entries and one hundred and one qualitative entries detailing the reliability and validity of using the social media platform Pinterest as a legitimate means for planning math lessons for students in pre-K through second grade. In order to prove its relative reliability and validity, the papers of education students enrolled in the course Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood Education (ECED 350) at Winthrop University in Spring and Fall 2017 were collected, evaluated, and analyzed. Each individual paper included ten pins, each falling under a particular math strand and a corresponding grade level, and each evaluated based on whether they did or did not meet eight different pieces of educational criteria; these data was represented quantitatively by a “1” or a “2” based on whether they met (1) or did not meet (2) the criteria. In addition, each student was required to answer four questions regarding their typical use of Pinterest and other media sources, as well as their findings from their own research. These qualitative data were organized based on the answers and how frequently they occurred. The preliminary findings revealed that there was a strong presence of active engagement in the lesson plans evaluated, but a lack of opportunities for student responses and respect for all students. The findings of this paper are important in that they will guide future educators in how and with what frequency they use Pinterest and other social media platforms to guide their lessons.

1:33 PM

Random: A Collection of Facts

Savannah Ray, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; Jesse Weser, M.A.; and Karen Derksen, M.A.

DIGS 220

1:33 PM

I will create a coffee table book called, Random: A Collection of Facts, that features a randomized collection of facts each paired with an illustration in the flat-art style. This book will explore a wide range of topics such as animal life, historical events, culture, human behavior, and even facts about the solar system and its planets. For readers, this book serves to inform, intrigue, and entertain, as well as create an attractive and functional art piece for the home. Random will be a square hardcover book with a bold yet neutral cover to match a wider range of home decor. Inside, an exploration of color and shapes within the full page illustrations will take readers on a journey they can interact with. The facts will be pulled from multiple sources and categories and then sorted throughout the book so no two categories are close together, and I will construct the imagery from the beginning phase of sketching all the way until the end. On top of the facts and illustrations, I will include an introduction, dedication, and source pages. Overall, Random will serve as a possible draft and jumping off point for future books in a series, as well as an entrance into the publishing community.

1:45 PM

"Almost Like my own Terror": Examining White Women in Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man

Jesse Lester, Winthrop University

DIGS 221

1:45 PM

Although there are relatively few prominent white women in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, it seems that Ellison had an important purpose for these characters. Almost immediately, the book suggests that despite their differences, white women and black men, like the novel’s narrator, share a common bond. Both groups are seen to be controlled by society’s dominant group, white men. Of course, despite this shared bond of being dominated, there exists a divide between the narrator and white women, a divide perhaps created by the de-facto ruling class that controls both groups. The narrator and other black men see white women as sexual objects first and as people second, and this is seemingly due to indoctrination by popular society that wants them to view women as objects. Similarly, white women, like Sybil from the Brotherhood, also view the narrator as a stereotype and not a person thanks to the same kind of societal indoctrination. The power white men exert on the interactions between these other groups of American society is represented in other ways in the novel. For example, black men like Dr. Bledsoe and white women like the unnamed Brotherhood member frequently use the narrator and other downtrodden members of society so they can benefit in their own way, becoming privileged minorities within their own oppressed groups. In addition, this paper also seeks to examine the novel’s depiction of white women alongside black women, as both groups are represented in wildly different ways throughout the novel.

Digital Methods for Humanities Disciplines

Christine Buckley, Winthrop University

DIGS 114

1:45 PM

Digital Humanities is an interdisciplinary approach to research as it uses modern technologies. The methods of how information can be displayed have increased in the 21st century, while developing new forms of inquiry and knowledge production. This expanding field can provide new ways of interacting with texts, images, and societies. It breaks the boundaries of traditional research methods in favor of a new, open-source way of acquiring knowledge. To understand this rising field as it can pertain to human culture is to emphasize the technologies and methods being used in digital humanities, and to explain various successful projects in the field. These projects focus on multiple aspects of the fields, including conservation, preservation, archiving, education, and many more. Those in humanistic research fields should consider how the digital culture can be an asset when applied to their areas of study. In the technological era, subjects of the humanities disciplines, particularly those related to art, history, and culture, should utilize digital humanities.

Food and Consumption in Francophone Literature

Cole Heatherly, Winthrop University

West 219

1:45 PM

Francophone authors use the symbolism of food and the act of consumption as a means of exploring postcolonial life and culture. In the postcolonial Francophone world, where native cultural identities were suppressed by French colonists, many authors and their characters use food to express themselves when their native languages or cultures are negated and might otherwise be forgotten. The existing body of scholarship on food in literature has noted the potential food has to function as a means of expression. My study seeks to expand this sometimes narrowly focused vein of study and to demonstrate the crucial role food plays in a diverse body of literature from the global Francophone diaspora. In these cultures, food is an important, concrete representation of culture and this is expressed in African novelist Calixthe Beyala's How to Cook-up Your Husband the African Way, in which the protagonist states plainly, "Food is synonymous with life." Through my discussion of the portrayal of food in a diverse cross-section of works by Antillean authors Edouard Glissant, Maryse Condé, Gisèle Pineau, and Aimé Cesiare, Lebanese-Canadian writer Abla Farhoud, and French-Cameroonian author Beyala, I will establish links between the role food plays in these different cultures and show how, despite colonization, food functions – not just within the confines of specific Francophone regions, but across the Francophone world – as a universal language that transcends borders.

Immunotherapy as a Treatment for Cervical Cancer

Sydney McCall, Winthrop University
Colin Frazier, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kristen Abernathy, Ph.D., and Zachary Abernathy, Ph.D.

West 221

1:45 PM

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the known root cause for the vast majority of cervical cancers. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and it has become the number one cancer in some developing countries. Immunotherapy is a treatment used to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. Implementing immunotherapy to slow or eliminate the growth of cervical cancer cells is less harmful to the patient than other treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy. Our model seeks to better understand the dynamics among HPV, cervical cancer, and immunotherapy. Furthermore, through global stability techniques, we provide sufficient conditions on immunotherapy treatment to ensure the eradication of HPV and cervical cancer cells, while allowing a positive population of healthy and immune cells to remain.

The Buzz on Honeybee

Brittany Kelly, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; G. David Brown, M.A.; and Janet Gray, M.F.A.

DIGS 220

1:45 PM

For my thesis project, I will create an Instagram account about the life and experiences of a character I have invented. Some of the posts will feature other characters, and all of them will be digitally illustrated at least two to three times a day. With this project, I hope to explore narrative in illustration, and how illustration and art can exist and create dialogue in a social media environment. I hope that this project will help me develop skill in drawing faster; even after this thesis project and class, I intend to keep creating the Instagram art and illustration in order to refine my illustration abilities.

The Eurocentric Canon: Why Are We Teaching Students in South Carolina to Stay Inside the Box?

Allison Snipes, Winthrop University

DIGS 222

1:45 PM

South Carolina public high schools are not required to teach World Literature, and therefore, many of them do not teach anything other than canonized literature. While many public high schools in South Carolina provide an in-depth literary education according to the literary canon, or provide a small sampling of diverse literature from around the world, most public high schools in South Carolina do not provide as diverse or representative of a literary education as is necessary in today’s world. In 2018, students are expected to be culturally aware, accepting, and understanding of diverse cultures and ways of thinking, but they are not always prepared or educated enough to engage in discussion or to create their own thoughts and opinions on diversity in the world. Many students are also unable to find enjoyment or engagement in literature because they are not aware of pieces of literature with which they can identify. This problem is occurring because teachers are teaching the pieces that they were taught in high school and that they have always taught; they are afraid of the backlash they will receive if they were to change, and they are focused on teaching to prepare students for tests, but not really focused on teaching our students to be informed of the world. In order to fix this problem, South Carolina public schools should provide a well-rounded literary education that provides background and representation of diverse cultures by including and teaching lots of different literary pieces in the English classroom.

1:57 PM

Specati – Boozy Ice Cream

Rachel Ogg, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; Jesse Weser, M.A.; Jane Thomas, Ph.D.; Shannon Pratt, B.F.A.; and Haley Ellis, B.F.A.

DIGS 220

1:57 PM

My thesis is centered around the packaging design for a line of alcoholic ice creams. Entitled Specati, the brand is intended for a young audience. In addition to a creating a beautiful and cohesive product line, my project will also include an ice cream cart, menu design, advertisements and product photography, and the actual creation of the ice cream itself. I intend to do this through design itself as well as through the flavors I create. Each component of this project will have a similar look and feel to it, a design that is illustrative and fun, while also evoking the feeling of a luxurious product.

2:00 PM

Alternative Texts in the Math Classroom: Exploring Sphereland

Christina Knight, Winthrop University

West 214

2:00 PM

Improving student literacy has become an increasingly important educational goal in the last decade. South Carolina, for example, recently adopted Read to Succeed legislation that requires teachers to receive special training on how to incorporate literacy into their specific content areas. One method of improving literacy is to incorporate alternative texts that provide supplementary reading beyond the classroom textbook. This is especially useful in mathematics, where students have difficulty understanding the high density, symbolic language associated with the subject. The alternative text used for this study was Sphereland by Dionysus Burger, a fictional novella that couples an interesting tale of discovery with geometry, trigonometry, dimensions, and relativity. Along with two related animated movies produced by Flat World Productions, the researchers for this project used Sphereland to develop supplementary lessons for Algebra 1 and 2, Geometry, Precalculus, and Calculus courses. Ten high school teachers and 13 mathematics classes used these lessons over two semesters. This project examines the constructed lessons, survey results from the 209 students, and feedback from the participating teachers.

This is the Thing

Kylie Smith, Winthrop University

Accompanist: Daphne Oliver and Serena Connelly, dancers

Faculty Mentor: Meg Schrffen, M.F.A.

DIGS 114

2:00 PM

My work for the Student Choreography Showcase will be an exploration of misconceptions between two people who are not together physically, but mentally. The human mind can play tricks on us, making us believe things that are not true. Whether it be misconceptions, misunderstandings or anxiety, separation from an important person can take a toll on the mind. I hope to translate this idea with two dancers who will be dancing on stage together, but unable to see each other. I would like a physical barrier on stage that prohibits the dancers from seeing each other. This physical barrier will represent the mental barriers that we create for ourselves. I would like to explore dancing in unison and in contrast to represent the differences and commonalities that two people share. I would also like to explore proximity between dancers and with the barrier. This exploration will represent how we break these barriers while also creating them. I would like to have two dancers to explore an intimate relationship. These two people may be family or friends.

Women's Empowerment Through Microfinancing

Lauren Kelly, Winthrop University

DIGS 221

2:00 PM

For more than twenty years, the issue of women’s empowerment in developing nations has moved to the forefront of both government and non-government organization (NGO) agendas. It has been largely recognized that, historically, women in developing countries have been excluded from participating in the social, economic, and political development of these countries. In addition, frequently women’s rights are not protected, and they are therefore impeded from full economic and social participation. Empowering women leads to more stability and prosperity for families. One of the main tools being used to help empower women is microfinancing (small credit loans aimed at helping low-income women become more financially independent.) There is much debate within the microfinancing world as to the most effective way to administer these loans, and how best to measure the loans’ empowerment effectiveness. This thesis aims to compare the impact of a minimalistic versus holistic approach to microfinancing on the levels of women’s empowerment. This will be done by analyzing the two approaches through studies conducted across the globe in developing nations, based on specific criteria, as well performing a thorough cost-benefit analysis. Empowerment criteria were decided on through an examination of over fifteen studies done worldwide. A conclusion was drawn that a holistic approach to microfinancing is the best choice, resulting in the highest levels of empowerment for the women. It is recommended that all governments and NGOs implement a holistic approach to their microcredit programs.

2:08 PM

Stolen Minds

Mikaela Laxton, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kelly Ozust, M.F.A.

2:08 PM

Stolen Minds was a choreography project inspired by the disease of schizophrenia. In a documentary following schizophrenic patients, one patient stated, "It's like a walking nightmare." These words drew me to the desire to create an environment on stage much like one might experience with schizophrenia. To create movement, I drew from two main ideas most schizophrenic patients experience each day: seeing shadows as people who may or may not be real, and seeing objects around them (hallucinations). My main focus was on the confusion one may have, wondering if they are experiencing reality or not. Although from the outside, one dealing with schizophrenia may seem out of place or unattached to the world around them, what they are experiencing is very real to them. Many of the patients describe this experience as feeling like their minds and lives have been stolen from them. I drew from the visual aids the documentary provided and also researched what is happening in the brain of someone having to live like this. My goal as an artist in the piece was to create an environment that, to the best of my knowledge, is closely related to what one may feel and experience when walking through a normal day with schizophrenia.

2:09 PM

Using Design to Aid in Poverty Relief

Kristin Streetman, Winthrop University

DIGS 220

2:09 PM

The issue of global poverty has dominated international discourse and is the focus of countless charity and public awareness campaigns. However, few have tried to address this threat to human life through the arts. In my thesis, I seek to use design to aid in global poverty relief. With this project, I am not aiming to solve global poverty, rather I seek to empower and aid communities currently affected by extreme poverty. To accomplish this goal, I will create a company that sells t-shirts and other screen-printed materials; a portion of the proceeds made will be directly given to grassroots organizations that work in and with communities impacted by poverty. For the purpose of my thesis, I will focus on the poorest parts of Latin America: the rural and indigenous communities of Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru. I will design three printed materials per region, three printed materials which represent the company, a website, and a packaging proposal for the products. The additional questions I am asking with this thesis are, how can I create socially and environmentally conscious designs which represent cultures I am not apart of, and how can I instill trust in my audience that my cause is worthwhile and helpful? The goal is to create a creative business model that promotes investment in communities and empowers individuals to be able to break the cycle of poverty within their populations.

2:15 PM

Poster Number: 107

Voting Rights, the Klan, and Race in Stella by Starlight

Asia Conyers, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Margaret Gillikin, Ph.D.

West 214

2:15 PM - 4:45 PM

This study examines interdisciplinary teaching, which provides students the opportunity to work with and apply knowledge from multiple disciplines organized around an overall theme or problem. The purpose of this research is to explore ways to integrate two subjects effectively for an interdisciplinary lesson. Teaching interdisciplinary lessons helps encourage students to go beyond the typical restrictions of just one content area, and it helps them to become more creative, focus on critical thinking, and work on communication skills. My research will include teacher-written blogs, scholarly articles, and interviews with several middle school educators about the impact of interdisciplinary teaching in their classrooms. In addition, my project will include a unit plan integrating the subjects of social studies and language arts to teach the novel Stella by Starlight by Sharon Draper, which takes place during the 1930s. The student-oriented lessons will emphasize reading comprehension and allow the students to apply the book’s concepts to their daily lives. For social studies, the students will explore topics such as voter disenfranchisement, the Ku Klux Klan, the Great Depression, and segregation, by using primary and secondary sources. The skills the students will gain from language arts will be interpreting and analyzing the author’s use of words, phrases and conventions; articulating ideas and perspectives in a logical sequence; using evidence to build arguments; and transacting with texts to formulate questions and explanations and to consider alternative/multiple perspectives.

2:45 PM

African-American Political Efficacy: An Examination of the Influence of the 2008 Election

Amber Anderson, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Maria Aysa-Lastra, Ph.D.

DIGS 222

2:45 PM

Political efficacy is a measure of a person’s understanding of the government and how much s/he feels that s/he can influence political affairs. People who have high levels of both internal (understanding) and external (influence) efficacy are more likely to participate in a variety of political activities that include voting. In a democratic society, it is important that citizens have high levels of efficacy so that they feel that their voices matter. Because of the history of racial discrimination in the United States, African-Americans have had lower levels of efficacy and trust in government than Caucasians in the past. However, the recent election of this country's first African-American president provides a reason for updated research on the political efficacy of African-Americans in the United States. Previous research has shown that people feel more efficacious after a candidate that they support wins an election, and that African-Americans, particularly, feel a stronger sense of group efficacy than other ethnic groups in the United States. This paper will investigate whether or not the political efficacy of African-Americans has increased after the election of President Barack Obama. Using data from the American National Election Survey, this question will be explored at the national level for all African-Americans; in addition, this paper will also explore if substantial changes in measures of political efficacy vary by region. After examining this, there will be a discussion on ways to increase political participation among those who were historically kept out of the process.

An Evaluation of the Impact that Distribution Channels Have on Mutual Fund Flows

Leslie Ortiz-Quiroz, Winthrop University

DIGS 114

2:45 PM

The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that an efficient market will price securities appropriately because they reflect all available and relevant information. In saying this, the investment theory suggests that investors are rational and will seek investments that will provide the highest return for a given level of risk – however, this is not always the case. In reality, investors lack the financial sophistication to properly evaluate the various securities that are offered in the financial market. This study evaluates information asymmetry within mutual fund distribution channels, to examine the concept of mutual fund managers, brokers, and financial advisers being incentivized for specific transactions. In a situation where there is asymmetric information, there is an opportunity for the more knowledgeable party to take advantage of the less knowledgeable. In assessing investor behavior, this thesis presents flow findings from U.S. equity mutual funds within various distribution channels, particularly during times of volatility. The analysis will compare their funds’ relative returns against the performance of the market and yield results for investor behavior.

Identification of the Phosphorylation Sites on RitR

Carra Lyons, Winthrop University

West 219

2:45 PM

Iron is essential to the survival of nearly all known organisms. Free iron in the cell also acts as a catalyst, reacting with common oxygen species within the cell, creating hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Every organism has to have a way to control iron uptake, to inhibit excess levels of iron within the cell. In S. pneumonia, the iron uptake mechanism is activated by extracellular iron; however, the sensory mechanism used to inhibit this uptake is not yet well understood. When iron is sensed extracellularly, a complex known as Stk-P is activated, and in the presence of ATP, this molecule will phosphorylate RitR. When not phosphorylated, RitR is bound tightly to the DNA of S. pneumonia in close proximity to the piu (pneumococcal iron uptake operon), preventing transcription of that portion of the DNA. When phosphorylated, RitR is not bound to the DNA, allowing transcription to occur. This research focuses on the location of phosphorylation on RitR. This will help understand how this protein functions and how it interacts with the DNA. Additionally, this work explores the difference in binding between RitR in its purified form, and the modified version of RitR. The phosphorylation sites on RitR were identified, and the structure changes caused by this phosphorylation were also explored. The sites that are modified by the kinase were identified to be Ser-19, Tyr-163, Thr-168, and Ser-172. Based on a homology model, three of these sites are located on a single helix in the DNA binding domain, while the Ser-19 site is located on the opposite side of the protein. The effects of these sites and their modification on the function of the protein will be explored further by modifying these amino acids to prevent the kinase from phosphorylating at these positions. The effects will then be observed on DNA binding to determine how this would influence the protein as it interacts with the piu.

Interactive Paper Posters

Ashley Cook, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; G. David Brown, M.A..; and Becca Zerkin, M.F.A.

DIGS 220

2:45 PM

Children view the smallest pieces of the world as strange, yet unbelievably incredible. I want to spark that feeling of childlike wonder and bring those insignificant wonders back into the adult view by creating an absurd, yet beautiful printed world for users to play in. These interactive posters will use paper mechanics to generate movement and animation on static paper. Paper mechanics can be defined as any three-dimensional or movable part made of paper, such as pop-ups, transformations, pulls tabs, lever systems, and others. Each interactive poster will be a cross between a poster and a toy. Users can manipulate, transform, and play with the scenes by interacting with the paper mechanics. The goal is for the user to enjoy the beauty of the piece, as well as be inspired by playing with the movable parts.

The Psychology of the Young Learner in Social Settings: School, Family Life, and Community

Stanley Kennedy, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Cheryl Fortner-Wood, Ph.D., and Ginger Williams, Ph.D.

West 214

2:45 PM

Inspired by my courses in early childhood education and psychology, the goal of this research is to better understand what roles homelessness and other socioeconomic statuses play in the psychology of young children and how this affects their behavior in social settings, such as school, family life, and their communities. Financial income, level of education, and occupational status of the parent(s) are the factors that make up socioeconomic status. Familial background and the socioeconomic status of the families play a major role in the psychological growth of children and the way they see themselves. The way children see themselves impacts how they function academically in school, socially with their peers and in their communities, and ultimately predicts how they will function as adults. My research starts with homeless children and then moves up the socioeconomic scale with low socioeconomic status, middle, and high socioeconomic status, by clearly defining each level and then comparing and contrasting them based on the similarities and differences of each level academically and socially. At the conclusion of my research, I will have a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of socioeconomic status on the psychology of young children and what each category needs to function properly.

The Relationship of ACL Injuries and Preventative Training Strategies in Female Athletes: A Comprehensive Review

Taylor Smith, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

2:45 PM

Athletes can be more susceptible to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries for various reasons, including improper landing techniques, valgus motions, and imbalanced musculature. Research suggests that female athletes are more prone to ACL injuries than male athletes, although the mechanisms are not clear. This comprehensive literature review examines numerous articles regarding the complexity of the causes of ACL injuries, potential preventative training strategies, and a better understanding of the increased risk of injury in female athletes. The purpose of this literature review is to achieve a better understanding of mechanisms of ACL injuries and possible preventative strategies.

Using Microbacterium foliorum as a Host for the Isolation and Subsequent Annotation of a Novel Bacteriophage Genome

Hallie V. Smith, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Victoria Frost, Ph.D., and Kristi Westover, Ph.D.

West 221

2:45 PM

Bacteriophages are viruses that inject their genomes into specific bacterial hosts to replicate. As members of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s SEA-PHAGES (Science Education Alliance – Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science) program, freshman at Winthrop University have isolated 21 phages from soil using the host bacterial strain Mycobacteria smegmatis. This semester, the host bacterial strain Microbacterium foliorum was piloted to increase the collection and knowledge of diversity within actinobacteriophage in Rock Hill. The novel phage Scamander was isolated directly from local soil. The subsequent purification and amplification protocols entailed multiple plaque assays, which made use of techniques such as picking a plaque from plates and various dilutions of phage lysate to obtain a pure phage sample with a high titer. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Scamander has a long, flexible tail, which is characteristic of the siphoviridae morphotype. Phage DNA was extracted and the genome was sequenced by the Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute. Annotation of the genome is in progress and the following programs are being used to determine specific gene data: protein blasts from PhagesDB, HHPred, and NCBI; gene start-site calling programs such as Starterator, GeneMaster, and Glimmer; and genome comparison maps on Phamerator. When complete, the annotated genome will reveal functions of certain genes, while also serving as a comparison for other existing and, as yet, undiscovered Microbacterium phages. The increasing database of bacteriophages and their characteristics helps to expand the understanding of the genomic diversity of viruses, particularly those that infect bacterial hosts in the phylum Actinobacteria.

2:57 PM

Nancy Paper Company

Kelsie DeBruhl, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; Jesse Weser, M.A.; and Laura Gardner, Ph.D.

DIGS 220

2:57 PM

For my senior thesis, I will be making a series of stationery kits. Because it is often thought that personal moments and stories can best be told through the sentiment of a handwritten card or note, I want to make something that could inspire others to take the time to connect with others through handwritten notes. I also want these stationery kits to have a sense of organization and function because I will create different designs that will be used within multiple stationery kits so that each kit will include 1 notebook, 1 notepad, 5 vertical writing sheets, 5 horizontal writing sheets, 5 blank cards, 5 specified cards, and 20 envelopes. I am painting the stationery graphics using gouache, then retouching and laying them out digitally. I will also be branding these stationery kits, marketing my designs towards millennial women at a site such as Etsy, where people can purchase them online.

3:00 PM

Controlling Oct4 Expression Levels Using Invitrogen’s GeneSwitch™ System

Autumn S. Leggins, Winthrop University

West 219

3:00 PM

Oct4 is a transcription factor that is crucial for the induction and retention of pluripotency in pluripotent stem cells. The potential for Oct4 to regulate the developmental potency of multipotent stem cells like adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) is not well understood. One approach to explore Oct4’s role would be through the use of cellular assays to control the expression of Oct4. This can possibly be accomplished by introducing a biological switch and the gene of interest into ADSCs. In this project, the GeneSwitch™ System was used to ultimately induce Oct4 expression. Oct4 was extracted from a pEX-K4-Oct4 plasmid (from Eurofins Genomics) that contained the gene of interest and was inserted into one of the GeneSwitch™ System plasmids that have the same recognition sites as those used to remove Oct4 from the pEX-K4-Oct4 plasmid. The newly combined GeneSwitch™ plasmid with Oct4 can then be placed into ADSCs along with the plasmid that will act as a biological switch. With this system put into ADSCs, it is expected that Oct4 levels will be successfully controlled. Once controlled, investigations can be completed to determine how Oct4 expression levels influence the developmental potency of ADSCs. Gaining the ability to control Oct4 will also open up the opportunity to test other hypotheses, including determining how Oct4 expression levels influence the developmental potency of other cell types. This knowledge could then be applied to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies that rely upon the ability of ADSCs to produce specified cell lineages.

Cost, Quality, and Access Concerns of the Children's Health Insurance Program and Children's Healthcare in the United States

Morganne Guinther, Winthrop University

West 214

3:00 PM

In recent times, passage of healthcare legislation such as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has raised questions about the costs, access, and quality of healthcare within the United States. One group of individuals that has been historically underrepresented in discussions of healthcare legislation is children. In 1997, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) legislation was passed in order to positively influence the health status of children in the United States. Since CHIP’s initial implementation in 1997, it has significantly influenced the costs of children’s healthcare, access to children’s healthcare, and quality of children’s healthcare. This thesis provides a comprehensive look at the CHIP program and how it has influenced healthcare for children in the United States. Also included is a discussion about how the flexibility in CHIP program implementation in different states has caused varied outcomes among children who are eligible for or who are actively enrolled in the CHIP program. This thesis also explores how various changes to the United States healthcare system over time, such as the introduction of the Affordable Care Act and the implementation of various CHIP reauthorization acts have influenced enforcement of CHIP legislation. Finally, after conducting a thorough analysis of CHIP legislation, predictions and recommendations about CHIP’s future influence on the United States healthcare system are discussed and evaluated in terms of the costs, quality, and access to children’s healthcare.

Grammar Implementation in the Classroom

Drew Griffin, Winthrop University

DIGS 114

3:00 PM

Prior to 2015, grammar in the South Carolina standards only required students to learn basic sentence types and mechanics. However, the introduction of Common Core into the state standards now requires much more thorough instruction. But is that instruction taking place? Gartland and Smolkin define grammar as “a set of rules that explain how a system operates, and in language, this system typically refers to syntax (the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language) and morphology (the study of how words are formed in a language).” Proper grammar instruction is essential for students to be able to find success in academic writing. Unfortunately, more and more professors find that students struggle to write basic sentences by the time that they enter college. The purpose of my study was to discover the effectiveness of grammar instruction in South Carolina and to find ways of making that instruction more effective. To do this, I administered surveys to students and teachers throughout the state to determine their perception of the instruction. In several 9th grade classes, I also administered pre-tests and post-tests to determine student progress following instruction. At the end of the study, I have determined that, while students showed marginal improvement after grammar instruction, more varied and intensive instruction is needed throughout the state and in all grade levels if students are to meet the level of writing required for a professional career.

Sexual Assault: Why Does It Matter And What Can We Do to Stop it?

Anna Laine Eastham, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: William Schulte, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

3:00 PM

Sexual assault is an increasingly serious problem for college-aged Americans and college campuses. According to the U.S. Department of Education and Title IX, rape and sexual assault are defined in a variety of ways. These include but are not limited to coercion, or unreasonable or persistent pressure for sexual activity, force, or the use of physical violence on someone physically to gain sexual access, incapacitation, or the state where someone cannot make rational, reasonable decisions and lack the ability to give consent, and other forms of abuse such as physical, emotion, and sexual. The stigma around sexual assault is one of the leading reasons that people that undergo a sexual assault do not report it. This research seeks to understand the culture that surrounds sexual assaults and sexual assault trials in the U.S. Without justice, there is little our country can do to combat sexual assault. The awareness that these cases have brought to our country is changing the way the United States responds to these cases, which is the first of many steps to changing the culture that surrounds sexual assault.

The Effects of Uniaxial Stretch on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Cultured on Flexible Silicone Membranes with Different Material Properties

Jennifer N. Schroen, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Stern, Ph.D.

West 221

3:00 PM

Cellular physiology is regulated by both biochemical and mechanical stimuli received from the environment. Traditional cell culture experiments typically focus on manipulation of the biochemical stimuli present in cell culture medium, while largely ignoring the role of mechanotransduction in the cellular processes being studied. A growing body of literature demonstrates that systematic manipulation of the physical/mechanical environment of cultured cells can be effectively used to drive a desired outcome – such as stem cell differentiation into a particular lineage. We are interested in the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) as a plentiful and easily obtained source of patient-matched multipotent stem cells for tissue engineering applications, including skeletal muscle tissue engineering. While ADSCs are capable of robust in vitro differentiation into several lineages, their ability to undergo (skeletal) myogenic differentiation is relatively limited. We hypothesized that the culture of ADSCs on flexible silicone membranes combined with the application of uniaxial stretch would increase the ability of ADSCs to differentiate down the myogenic lineage. Here, we describe the development and testing of a culture system that allows us to tune the material properties of the silicone membranes used as substrates for cell culture and apply precise regimens of uniaxial stretch to cells cultured on the membranes. Our results show that both culture on silicone membranes and exposure to uniaxial stretch alter the properties of ADSCs under standard growth conditions. Future work will seek to identify a combination of biochemical and mechanical stimuli that improves the efficiency of myogenic differentiation of ADSCs within this system.

“When Caesar says ‘Do this,’ it is perform’d”: Political Metadrama in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and Donald Trump’s Presidential Campaign

Kathryn T. Burt, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Fike

DIGS 222

3:00 PM

Previous criticism of Julius Caesar has observed that Shakespeare uses metatheatrical strategies to comment on the performative nature of politics; however, scholars tend to present the play as either politically radical or politically ambiguous. Naomi Conn Liebler and Jack D’Amico both offer radical interpretations of Julius Caesar, whereas Richard A. Burt argues that the play’s political message depends entirely “on the way that play is received and articulated”. Interestingly, contradictory readings these and other scholars have about the political identity of the play parallel the media’s fluctuating responses to Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign. Furthermore, Julius Caesar is a play about a political outsider and his friends attempting to overthrow the establishment through radical means, but it uses metatheatrical strategies in order to give the audience the cathartic experience of vicariously murdering an authority figure while reinforcing the desirable stability of a monarchal government. Similarly, by calling attention to and mocking the performative nature of American politics and ostensibly empowering his audience with knowledge of the political system, Trump garnered trust while using the very strategies he mocked to create the appearance of credibility. The metatheatrical correlations between Julius Caesar and the Trump campaign indicate a political cycle in Western culture wherein the governed tolerate their political establishment until the inability of establishment figures to accomplish anything on behalf of constituents incites a desire for revolution. When this revolution ultimately fails because the new authority figure(s) are unprepared to lead, the public returns to the more stable establishment.

3:09 PM

John Fry, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A., and Jesse Weser, M.A.

DIGS 220

3:09 PM

My thesis is a justification of my design practices. My ideas about design have developed rapidly in the last year as I have adopted an artistic approach. I’ve been developing a personal style and method that does not strictly adhere to the design process that I have been taught. Poignantly aware of my lack of professional experience, I feel the need to define my design practices before entering the workforce. Through design experimentation and reflective writing, I plan to understand and articulate my ideas in order to defend them. I believe that design should first be intriguing before communicating a message. In order for designers to most effectively reach their audience, they must catch their attention and present them with questions. I am creating an artist’s book that further discusses this approach to design and explores the value of visual spectacle through aesthetic experimentation. The marriage of essay and image will attempt to illustrate this approach and evaluate its efficacy.

3:15 PM

College of Arts and Sciences Branding Research

Kendall Roberson, Winthrop University
Olivia Jamison, Winthrop University
Keri McQueen, Winthrop University
Reeves McMillan, Winthrop University
Kimberly D. Tipton, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Padmini Patwardhan Ph.D.

DIGS 222

3:15 PM

The purpose of this campaign is to promote the College of Arts and Sciences at Winthrop University. The College of Arts and Sciences (CAS) is the largest college at Winthrop University and is the home to 19 undergraduate programs and over 1,332 accessible courses. The main objective of the campaign was to give the College of Arts and Sciences a cohesive brand image that promotes belonging among students, faculty, and staff. We conducted in-depth qualitative and quantitative research in order to have an understanding of how the CAS was perceived on campus. Our research showed that a majority of students, faculty, and staff have a positive attitude toward the CAS. Students are aware of what the CAS is, but not what it does. Faculty and staff are very aware of the CAS and recognize the college as the backbone of the university. Faculty, staff, and students view the CAS as a sincere, competent and exciting brand. We recommend that the CAS brand itself as an exciting and sincere brand. The starting point should be increasing communication between the CAS and its faculty, staff, and students. The CAS should also host events to help students feel like they belong. Through our campaign, we hope to create conversations that spread the word about the new College of Arts and Sciences.

Jeff Wall and the Metamodern

Devon Oepen, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Karen Stock, Ph.D.

DIGS 114

3:15 PM

Art has long since extended beyond the tradition of aesthetic beauty as a measure of merit and into a new tradition of deconstruction and politicization. However, contemporary art has seen an emergence of a new optimism entirely uncharacteristic of postmodernism. Jeff Wall exemplifies the transitionary figure of the modern to the contemporary. His documentary style of photography rejects narrative exploration and instead forces the viewer into the role of voyeur. This dialogue of discomfort is entirely unlike the passivity of viewing in a museum, rather it creates an intimate moment of sheer intentionality in which the viewer is imposing upon the work. Wall encourages the intellectual engagement between history and his work and plays with the line between commercialism and artistry. This is not the inaccessibility of postmodernism, instead an invitation for viewer interpretation and an exercise in analysis and wonderment. Furthermore, Wall does not reject the realm of classical high art but instead incorporates the geniuses of art history’s canon into his photography. This attention to the role of the viewer in generating meaning, reemergence of classical forms, and intertextuality of the contemporary and postmodern has established Jeff Wall as a true metamodernist and one of the most important artists of the 20th and 21st centuries.

Kamala Khan: Her Struggles with Her Identity and the Impact She Makes on the Ms. Marvel World

Hannah Jackson, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Robert Prickett, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

3:15 PM

Within the Marvel Industry, there have been several depictions of Muslim characters; however, Kamala Khan has made a far more significant impact on comic readers and the representation of Muslim superheroes. In making this impact, though, Kamala did not emerge as a confident and unwavering hero but instead experienced an internal struggle as she searched for her identity not only as Kamala Khan but also as her own version of Ms. Marvel. Through an examination of several elements of Kamala’s life, including her origin as a superhero, her superpowers and costume, and her internal struggle to be herself, I argue that Kamala is not able to truly become Ms. Marvel until she reconnects with her identity as a Muslim and learns to draw strength from her faith instead of running from it. In addition, through the representation of Kamala’s struggle with her identity and finding a balance between her faith and heroics, Ms. Marvel achieves several things for her readers. Primarily, the representation of Muslim superheroes is shown to have shifted dramatically to depict a character that struggles with her identity as a Muslim American, accurately represents a Muslim individual, and creates diversity within the comic book world. Furthermore, the messages of Ms. Marvel extend beyond the borders of the pages as the challenges that Kamala faces connect to readers as a whole who struggle with their own individual identities, fitting in with others, and learning to be themselves in a world that promotes uniformity.

Parent Knowledge on Concussion Education

Travantae Cuffie, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

West 214

3:15 PM

The purpose of this review is to better understand parents’ knowledge of concussion education in youth sports. A concussion is a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces. Concussions alone are complex for even physicians to diagnosis; therefore, it is not surprising that parents commonly struggle to recognize symptoms. Results from several studies suggest that there should be required concussion prevention programs for students, parents, and coaches to complete prior to the season. In contrast, other studies explained that, if an athletic trainer chooses to follow the best practices when working alongside athletes to help them recover, sometimes the responsibility to detect signs of concussion then falls on the parent(s)/guardian(s). Other research studies suggest that athletic trainers create pamphlets that serve to educate parents on concussion prevention and recovery. A better understanding of parents’ knowledge on concussion causes, symptoms, treatment, and recovery is critical to work towards lowering the prevalence of concussions in youth sports.

Skin Cancer Prevention: An Interdisciplinary Analysis and Educational Intervention Proposal

Brittney Ramsey, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Ginger Williams, Ph.D.

West 219

3:15 PM

Skin cancer is the most common cancer facing today’s society. Between 1982 and 2011, the percentage of Americans who developed melanoma doubled; one in five Americans will develop skin cancer within their lifetime. If preventative measures are not taken, 112,000 new melanoma cases are expected in the year 2030 alone. One method of combating the rising incidence numbers is through creating an educational program to combat the lack of proper skin care and skin protection knowledge. From previous literature, it is clear that young adults are a key demographic to consider when creating an interventional educational program, but results using this method have been modest, and it is unknown if the behavioral changes are continual. A customized education program is to be presented to students, who will be given a survey to assess their base knowledge, knowledge after the presentation, and retained knowledge after a few months. This study seeks to determine if an educational program would be an efficient method of combating the numbers at Winthrop University, gaining information as to the effectiveness and long-term effects of intervention programs within college-age individuals.

Sleep Quality in Collegiate Athletes: A Critical Review of the Literature.

Hannah Roark, Winthrop University

3:15 PM

Sleep is a critical component of the body’s diurnal rhythm and for preparation and recovery from athletic competition. Therefore, it is a necessity for athletes to sleep for the minimum recommended amount (7-9 hours) each night. If there are disturbances with the timing, and/or quality of sleep, the psychological and physiological recovery processes are inevitably compromised. Poor sleep can cause diminished athletic performance, increased fatigue, and impaired cognition. In addition to exceptional physiological demands, collegiate athletes face many extra-athletic demands that can lead to insufficient sleep (e.g., studying, emergencies, etc.). Long-distance travel is common among most collegiate athletic competitions. Thus, travel fatigue can cause sleep disturbances, which can lead to a worsened mood, a reduced quality of sleep on the road, and decreased overall motivation levels. Travel between time zones can also cause jet lag and inadequate sleep quality and quantity. Sports teams will often schedule multiple matches per week, which does not allow the athletes adequate time for metabolic recovery. This can lead to overtraining and musculoskeletal injuries. Previous research indicates athletes benefit from prescriptions for additional sleep beyond their normal intake. Athletes who get adequate sleep demonstrate increased accuracy, enhanced mood, and, for example, faster sprint times in their sports. Taken together, there are many factors that can potentially impair sleep quality in collegiate athletes. Thus, the purpose of this literature review is to outline the importance of sleep in athletes, factors that can cause sleep loss, and the effects of reduced sleep on athletic performance.

The Relationship between Exercise and Migraines: A Comprehensive Review

Mikaila Kennedy, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

West 214

3:15 PM

Migraines affect millions of people worldwide. Decades of research have gone into studying migraines, but very little has been found on their causes and treatments. This is because the brain is so complex. Neurologists tend to give prescription after prescription to migraine patients, but patients want something more than a pill; they want a more holistic approach to treat their migraines. This comprehensive review of the literature examines the reported benefits of yoga and cardiovascular exercises, as compared to conventional care, with regard to migraine symptoms, intensities, and frequencies. The purpose of this literature review is to find a correlation between exercise and the potential improvement of patients’ migraines.

3:21 PM

Little Alchemist's Guide to the Elements

Maria-Francesca Massaro-Guglielmo, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A., and G. David Brown, M.A.; Gokhan Ersan, M.F.A.; and Cliff Calloway, Ph.D.

DIGS 220

3:21 PM

I am creating a learning tool for students to better understand and learn the elements of the periodic table. Visual aids are important for visual learners like me, who need more than words and formulas in order to remember details. Not everyone learns the same way, and my designs will give visual learners an opportunity to see the periodic table in a new way. It is very important for everyone to understand science. One can find a periodic table hanging in any high school chemistry classroom, but no one ever looks at the periodic table with interest in learning about it. How can the periodic table be more than numbers and words? With my illustrations, I am making science more accessible, taking the complex and making it simple and entertaining. My illustrations go beyond numbers and words. I want to be able to entice and intrigue students into learning more about science and being able to easily understand it.

3:30 PM

Discussions of 19th Century French Realism

Willard Z. Ramsey, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Dufresne, Ph.D.

DIGS 114

3:30 PM

Gustave Flaubert's literary masterpiece, Madame Bovary, challenges readers to think about cultural and societal standards in the analysis of the moral conundrum faced by the central character. Flaubert specifically presents a critique of women's role in society by using strong elements of irony and melodrama. The contemporary artist Gustave Courbet similarly challenges viewers to self-reflect on their cultural and societal status within his work. He directly acknowledges the viewers in his work, allowing him to politically confront them with a strong opinion. This paper will present how these artists create a sense of morality in a seemingly amoral world of their own creation.

Humanizing the Immigrant: A Combination of Scholarship and Activism

Ana Karen Castellanos, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jennifer Disney, Ph.D., and Michael Lipscomb, Ph.D.

DIGS 222

3:30 PM

This paper combines the primary data from an interview, lyrics from contemporary songs about immigrants, poetry about U.S. imperialism and the human experiences of people of color in the U.S., with theories created in the academic sphere. The author, Ana Karen Castellanos, uses the songs, poems, and interview to highlight aspects of the unauthorized immigrant experience, such as the difficulty of leaving the home country, the unnaturalness and flaws of U.S. restrictive immigration policies, and immigrant resilience. In doing this, the aim is to display important, untold stories of people with very human dreams and inhumane traumas who are trying to make it in the U.S., in the face of restrictive immigration policies, punitive deportation policies, and an overall unwelcoming atmosphere in their new home. In this paper, the author argues that fear, distrust, and/or hatred of foreigners exists because the dominant white population in the U.S. is generally distanced from the entire humanity of these immigrants. With knowledge about different kinds of people comes understanding and acceptance. Castellanos calls this work a combination of scholarship and activism, because it uses academic means for a clear normative end: this paper not only proposes an optimistic solution to the current divisive political climate, but is also part of that solution. It itself is a bridge seeking to deliver hidden stories to those deprived of the ability to readily see different people as full, humanized people.

Probing the Role of High Mobility Group A1 (hmga1) in Chemoresistance Using 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine

Maryssa Shanteau-Jackson, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Takita Sumter, Ph.D.

West 219

3:30 PM

Chemoresistance is a major limitation to effective cancer treatment regimens. Specifically, cancer stem cells, self-renewing cells that can differentiate, provide a pathway to escape treatments by targeting rapid cell division pathways. High mobility group A1 (hmga1) is implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers and may be involved in the genetic events leading to the growth of cancer stem cells. Mice bearing the (hmga1 transgene develop aggressive lymphoid malignancies and are less responsive to chemotherapies that have been tested. To this end, we explored the role of (hmga1 in chemoresistance using 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-FdUrd). 5-FdUrd is the active antimetabolite of a mainstay in cancer treatment whose activity is based on the misincorporation of fluoropyrimidines into DNA and RNA during their synthesis. Studies were conducted using HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells with high endogenous levels of hmga1 proteins. These cells were treated with varying concentrations of 5-FdUrd and IC50 values were determined to be comparable to, but slightly higher than, previously published values. Silencing of (hmga1 expression by siRNA duplexes targeting different genetic regions enhanced sensitivity to 5-FdUrd by greater than 1.5- to 3-fold when compared to native HCT-116 cells. Collectively, we provide data that support the role of (hmga1 in orchestrating the ability of cancer cells to evade the impacts of chemotherapy, particularly those targeting cell division pathways. We expect that this work will contribute to an expanded understanding of cancer initiation and progression and will facilitate development of more effective cancer therapies.

“The Fruits Are to Ensue”: Male Dominance and Female Desirability in William Shakespeare's Othello

Carson Pender, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Leslie Bickford, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

3:30 PM

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fierce sexual tension and anxiety, toxic masculinity and oppressed femininity, and violence as a definition for love in William Shakespeare’s Othello. A time of artistic growth, progression, and rebirth known as the Renaissance was a catalyst for male performance; and the result of this male dominance is the image of a fair-skinned, golden-haired, virginal woman willing to succumb to her husband’s desires. Similarly, jealousy in a romantic relationship was not only accepted but expected. Mark Breitenberg, author of “Anxious Masculinity: Sexual Jealousy in Early Modern England,” asserts “Renaissance treatises on jealousy, marriage, and the ‘proper’ conduct of wives often function as interpretive manuals aimed at enabling men to ‘read’ correctly the signs of women’s sexual behavior.” Othello’s aggressions emanate from his assumption that Desdemona has been sleeping with other men despite her faithfulness to Othello, perpetuating the notion that women who are sexual, married or not, must be surveilled. As portrayed in the play, Desdemona, Bianca, and Emilia act as “fruit” to be consumed or “objects” to be purchased. By examining historical, feminist, gender, and queer themes in Shakespeare’s Othello, I seek to prove the damaging and violent nature of the patriarchy in relation to women’s sexual expression, and highlight the impact that the patriarchy has on the current culture. Othello and the men around him are the catalyst for repressed sexual desire and displaced aggression, and the obsession with consumption eventually consumes every character in the play.

The Use of Magnetic Cell Sorting to Obtain Multilineage-Differentiating Stress Enduring Cells from Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Hannah Hopfensperger, Winthrop University

West 221

3:30 PM

Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are a unique subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that are pluripotent and have the ability to self-renew for multiple generations. Muse cells also have an advanced ability to receive damage signals, survive in stress-filled environments, and exhibit low tumorigenic activity. Due to their expression of the cell surface antigen SSEA-3, Muse cells in a heterogeneous population of MSCs can be separated from non-Muse cells. We hypothesized that human adipose derived stem mesenchymal cells (ADSCs) can be sorted into Muse and non-Muse populations on the basis of SSEA-3 expression using a magnetic cell sorting strategy. To test our hypothesis, cells were magenetically sorted, and the expression of genes associated with enhanced developmental potency was compared between Muse and non-Muse populations of ADSCs using real-time PCR. Our working hypothesis is that Muse ADSCs will exhibit significantly greater levels of expression of genes associated with enhanced developmental potency than non-Muse ADSCs. In addition to gene expression studies, both Muse and non-Muse cells were plated on poly-HEMA plates to assess their ability to form M-clusters – a known characteristic of Muse cells. Future work will include sorting human ADSCs into Muse and non-Muse populations using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), as well as testing the developmental potential of Muse cells in three-dimensional culture systems.

3:33 PM

HIstory Revisioned

Asiah Fulmore, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; G. David Brown, M.A.; and Jesse Weser, M.A.

DIGS 220

3:33 PM

My thesis is a collection of six 18-inch-by-24-inch posters that chronicle significant events in U.S. History. It will include not only domestic events but also events that directly relate to U.S. foreign policy, ranging from the early civilizations in 12,000 B.C., to the end of the modern era. These posters will better educate K–12 students by updating the visuals that are used in history education -- the old drawings/paintings, and artist’s renditions – into content students can more easily relate to. I will also include a small deck of flashcards that could be purchased alongside the posters to augment the learning experience. Education is fundamental to a successful society, in more fields than just math and English; learning history is critical, because to understand our past is to understand our present. These posters will be a new level in history education – meeting students where they are, in a language they are interested in. These posters will help facilitate a generation of learners, who know their past and are ready to embrace the future.

3:45 PM

A Call for Inclusivity on the Campus of Winthrop University through an Interdisciplinary Approach to Adding Diversity to the ACAD 101 Curriculum

Tadean Page, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Ginger Williams, Ph.D., and Kinyata Adams Brown, M.A.

DIGS 222

3:45 PM

Any fire can spread quickly, resulting in a large amount of damage. Fire can be used as an analogy to represent the lack of inclusivity on Winthrop University’s campus. That lack of inclusion often results in racial tension and the feeling of isolation for people of color, sexual identity, or interests other than the majority. I believe it is essential for us to recognize that there is an issue here, that our kitchen is, in fact, on fire. The analogy of the kitchen on fire represents the current state of our university because that fire has the potential to expand and “burn down the house,” referring to the status and reputation of Winthrop University. It is my desire to see Winthrop thrive holistically, and I believe that can come to fruition only if we work to put out the fire and improve our inclusiveness. The research I completed observed the current landscape of the ACAD 101 curriculum and how diversity is introduced during the course. I viewed the issue from an interdisciplinary perspective, seeking to find a solution that was most effective. With the assistance of various student-affairs professionals, I was able to sculpt a plan that fosters a sense of inclusion on the campus of Winthrop University by considering the level of exposure, instructor training, and the tactfulness of the curriculum.

Exploring a Possible Moonlighting Role for Global Phosphatase in S. pneumonia

Hunter G. Sellers, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Nicholas Grossoehme. Ph.D.

West 221

3:45 PM

Iron is essential to an overwhelming majority of life on Earth; however, in aerobic conditions, it can take on multiple oxidation states and create harmful oxidative species that must be regulated to maintain the health of the cell. Many bacteria use one of the common metal regulatory proteins (e.g., FUR) to maintain safe levels of iron in the cell, but genome analysis of S. pneumonia indicates that it lacks any of the standard sensors. Interestingly, the presence of extracellular iron triggers an intracellular uptake response; this process involves three proteins: StkP (membranous kinase), RitR (transcription factor), and PhpP (phosphatase). It is likely that the intracellular iron sensor is linked to this uptake system; in fact, we hypothesize that the intracellular sensor is built directly into this system. Noting that PhpP is a magnesium-dependent enzyme, we hypothesize that perhaps PhpP is activated by intracellular iron in S. pneumonia, thus providing the intracellular iron sensor that it needs. Using a combination of UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, we tested this hypothesis. Using para-nitrophenylphosphate assays (PNPP, a surrogate for phosphorylated RitR) along with manganese as an aerobic condition-friendly surrogate, we demonstrated that PhpP is activated by manganese. Using fluorescence competition experiments with the metal-binding fluorophore Mag-Fura-2, we quantified the affinity of PhpP for manganese (Kd = 2.16 mM) and magnesium (Kd = 185.1 mM). Together, these results support the hypothesis. Future work will focus on testing ferrous iron activation of PhpP.

Force

Keela Lewis, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; G. David Brown, M.A.; Gerry Derksen, M.Des.; and Sanford Greene

DIGS 220

3:45 PM

I will write and illustrate seven, 11 by 17 zine pamphlets about superheroes I've created. A zine is a magazine or fanzine, a self-published work intended for a small, narrow audience. My zine will be similar to a concept book. There will be six heroes, each with his or her own zine pamphlet, and story line, with one villain zine. I want to introduce a new set of superheroes with storylines for each of the characters and then connect each one to a greater, more in-depth background. There will be areas where I will include pencil and ink, as well as colored pencil process work to introduce the characters. I will then describe and draw out how they will use their powers through hand and feet studies and fighting poses and interactions. Then I will show off their final rendering, which I will do in Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. Lastly, I will include at least a page of paneling to further explain some of their background, and their daily lives with their powers.

Immunotherapy as a Treatment for HPV and Cervical Cacner

Colin Frazier, Winthrop University

West 219

3:45 PM

In this paper, we analyze a system of six ordinary differential equations to model dynamics of the human papilloma virus (HPV), cells infected with the virus, cells susceptible to the virus, precancerous cells, cancerous cells, and the immune system's response. The model considers the dynamics of these cell populations when the immune system is boosted through immunotherapy treatment. We find sufficient global stability conditions using the method of localization of compact invariant sets. Graphs of numerical simulations show the dynamics of the system when conditions are met and when conditions are not met.

Imperial Themes in the Santa Maria Maggiore: A Comparison of Mosaic Representations and Political Events in the 420s

Evan Schultheis, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Dufresne, Ph.D.

DIGS 114

3:45 PM

The Santa Maria Maggiore mosaics are a well-studied example of early Christian and late Roman art, considered the earliest surviving church-sponsored mosaic and highly regarded for its depictions of the virgin Mary. Indeed, the mosaics were commissioned in time to coincide with the ecumenical council of Ephesus in 431, which condemned Nestorianism and confirmed the virgin’s title of Khristotokos and Theotokos. However, the commissioning and construction of the church was shadowed by the tumultuous political circumstances between the eastern and western administrations in the 420’s and 430s C.E. The decade saw a civil war to ensure the continuation of the Theodosian dynasty, the rise of Aetius, and the Vandal invasion of Africa, all of which impacted the sociopolitical climate of Roman Italy. It is possible that in support of the new emperor Valentinian and his mother, Galla Placidia, elements of the Santa Maria Maggiore may have reflected the political developments surrounding the transition of power in the middle of the decade by displaying legitimizing and authoritative imagery of the Imperial dynasty.

Increasing Critical Thinking Pedagogy through the High School English Classroom

Eleanor Weldie, Winthrop University

West 214

3:45 PM

Over the last couple of years, research has shown that high school students are experiencing and reporting increased amounts of stress. At the top of the list of stressors is school, course work, and anxiety over college. This is a problem perpetuated in many high schools by extreme rigidness to standards and using methods that teach directly to tests rather than the holistic student. Teachers are asserting the importance of content and correct answers, making students concerned with grade point averages and acceptance letters. Students are graduating with impressive resumes but no truth-seeking or problem-solving skills. The answer to these issues lies in increasing critical thinking pedagogy throughout the high school curriculum. Critical thinking emphasizes the ability to judge one’s own and another’s underlying thoughts, assumptions, and blocks, which all work to prepare students for college and the work force more than simple memorization and regurgitation of facts. In this paper, I argue that schools need to increase the amount of critical thinking skills they are teaching their students; furthermore, I believe the high school English classroom provides an opportunity to do just that. By examining the Paul and Elder approach to critical thinking and walking through a sample case study using a novel in the classroom, I will prove that critical thinking skills can not only be taught in tandem with content, but that when students master these skills, they actually respond better to and gain more out of their learning experiences.

The Gay Neighborhood: Social Enclave or Gentrification Catalyst?

Nicholas Kent, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Maria Aysa-Lastra, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

3:45 PM

Originally, gay neighborhoods appeared in less desirable areas due to the stigmatization of the gay community; but with gay assimilation and acceptance increasing, the communities have developed into something altogether more affluent through the process of gentrification. The effect gay neighborhoods have on the urban landscape is something that remains unclear, and that is why this article seeks to add to our understanding of these communities as both necessary safe spaces and possibly hostile presences for the surrounding lower class communities and people of color. This article seeks to measure previously defined indicators of gentrification in neighborhoods that contain above average gay household presence and determining whether there exists a correlation between gay presence and neighborhood gentrification. I use data from the 2000 and 2010 United States Censuses. Seven states, along with Washington D.C., were selected for their notable gay neighborhoods and representation of multiple United States geographical regions. From this dataset, gay households (head of household being the same gender as second person of household) were separated from straight households (head of household being the opposite gender of the second person of household) and measured by Census tract. Results of my research indicate that in areas with increased gay presence, there is an increase in both income and rented households, mirroring previous research and suggesting that gay presence likely also indicates gentrification.

3:57 PM

Outsiders

Kelsey Benton, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jason Tselentis, M.F.A.; G. David Brown, M.A.; and Michelle Soto, M.F.A.

DIGS 220

3:57 PM

My thesis is designed to inspire people, particularly younger people, to visit South Carolina state parks and experience the outdoors. South Carolina has parks in the mountains and beaches, among other places. Parks provide a wide range of services and activities for little or no cost. However, many people are unaware of the experiences they are missing out on. The majority of frequent park visitors are of retirement age. Occasionally, these visitors will bring their grandkids on the weekends or during the summer, but there is a wide age gap and few adult visitors who do not yet have their own families. I will make a poster series and sticker pack based on outdoor illustrations that will represent my experiences at each of three parks to encourage people to visit and experience these parks themselves. My anticipated audience is teenagers and young adults aged 18 to 35. According to my research, this age group typically is not aware of or connected to the parks. In large part, this target audience is much more connected to technology than previous generations have been and they don’t value time spent outdoors as much as other generations. My designs will be similar to movie and concert posters, which will appeal to their interests and hopefully get them to take notice of South Carolina parks.

4:00 PM

Examining Drug Resistant versus Sensitive Tumor Cell Populations with Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy

John Brotemarkle, Winthrop University
Genia Kennedy, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kristen Abernathy, Ph.D., and Zachary Abernathy, Ph.D

West 219

4:00 PM

Drug resistance, also known as multidrug resistance (MDR), is the leading cause of chemotherapy failure in treating cancer. This drug resistance in cancer cells can be transferred from resistant cancer cells to sensitive cancer cells. Sensitive cancer cells can become resistant through three main methods: via direct cell-to-cell contact with resistant cancer cells, through a membrane, or through exposure to the treatment drug. In our project, we take into account the transfer of drug resistance from resistant to sensitive cancer cells via direct cell-to-cell contact. We then introduce an immune response and chemotherapy, and establish conditions on treatment parameters in the resulting system to ensure a globally stable cure state. We conclude with evidence of a limit cycle and conjecture the existence of a Hopf bifurcation.

Gender Identity, Scrutiny, and Gender Discrimination Cases in the American Legal System

Robert Anthony Sale, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Michael Lipscomb, Ph.D.

DIGS 221

4:00 PM

My research is motivated by an attempt to establish a men’s rape and defense class at Winthrop University with the support of Title IX federal law. I was immediately confronted with issues of practicality: the police department conducting these classes for women only could not afford to train their instructors in a men’s rape and defense program. In addition, although we were able to get a petition signed by students on campus (at least thirty men willing to take these classes if they were established), no one signed up for the first offering of the class, and the program was eventually stopped. I began to question how the university police would have confronted a non-traditional gender identity, especially when their basis for separating people into two classes was biologically/sex-driven. Because these gender identities seem to lack certain legal protections, I will be examining gender identity within the American legal system. In particular, my research aims to explore whether strict scrutiny in discrimination cases related to gender identity can be defended theoretically. The foundation of my research is based on the current lack of legal protection afforded to non-binary gender identities at both the federal and state levels and the threat and injury posed to those individuals by discrimination. I conclude by asserting that people with non-traditional/non-binary gender identities occupy a space outside of the narrow legal categories of gender identity, leading to a call for at least a minimal amount of scrutiny for gender identity in these cases.

The Spanish Tapa: Understanding its Role Socially and Culturally Over Time

Madeline Weih, Winthrop University

DIGS 114

4:00 PM

While studying in Spain, I was introduced to a new form of food that interested me, the Spanish tapa. I became interested in this food after having gone to some of the Spanish restaurants and experienced first-hand the unique role they played in the development and construct of Spanish society, both socially and culturally. I began to suspect that, from the time of its origins to today, there must be something within the food that helps to keep the Spanish society so integrated and social. Research suggested that, in fact, the use of the tapa has evolved over time, and continues to affect not only Spain but also other countries, as it becomes more widely popular. I argue that the Spanish tapa is a vital component of Spanish culture, and that its role as a mere accompaniment to a drink to a social food has enhanced the Spanish society, as well. To test if the usage of the tapa has evolved within Spanish society, I used surveys sent to native Spaniards, asking questions about how their use of the tapa has changed over time. The research results support my claim that, while the idea is still traditional, the tapa is becoming more and more a social symbol, rather than just a food to eat. As time goes on and its popularity continues to spread, it will alter the way that food is used in other countries, as well.

The Wound of Geography: The Current State of the Corridor of Shame

Tanner Slagle, Winthrop University

West 214

4:00 PM

Since 1993, many of South Carolina’s rural school districts have been involved in a judicial process aimed at securing more funds and better opportunities for the students that they serve. Over the last twenty-five years, these school districts, which filed suit under the name Abbeville County School District, et al. v. State of South Carolina, et al., have been involved in a bureaucratic process that has led to few changes. These rural school districts are primarily located along the Interstate 95 corridor in what has colloquially become known as the “Corridor of Shame.” The term “shame” is arguably two-fold, as politicians and legislators are ashamed of the conditions and test scores that are associated with many of these school districts. However, the school districts are ashamed that their elected officials will not initiate or require action that will lead to the improvements for which they continue to fight. This thesis outlines twenty-five years of courtroom rulings, dialogue, and discussion while also providing a plan for improvements that the South Carolina House of Representatives claims is unfathomable. With appropriate legislative action, the school districts along the Corridor of Shame can begin to provide their students with the quality of education and the opportunities that they deserve and have been trying to secure since long before the case’s start in 1993.