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2018
Friday, April 20th
12:00 PM

Poster Number: 001

Understanding Daily Caffeine Consumption and its effects on College Student's GPA

Timarah Chisolm, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the effects of caffeine on college students’ health and how the daily consumption of caffeine can impact a student’s overall GPA. Caffeine is a crystalline compound that can be found in most products today, especially coffee, that stimulates the body’s central nervous system (CNS). Through several studies, there has been observation of the negative effects of caffeine, such as sleep deprivation, caffeine intoxication, and caffeine withdrawal once it is no longer ingested daily. Through this review, there were findings of how caffeine specifically affects college students, who are reported to consume the most caffeinated products. Through these results, it was found that the effects of daily caffeine consumption can cause anxiety, depression, and excessive stress. These findings lead to the conclusion that caffeinated products do not have a correlation to better grades or higher GPAs in college students. However, the results do suggest that college students’ dependency on caffeine can cause other negative long-term effects, such as anxiety, stress, and depression. The effects of stress were not significant once additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle variables were gathered. This review of literature is significant because it will enable college students to identify the negative effects of caffeine and the daily use of this substance, which can allow them to make educated decisions about their nutritional habits.

Poster Number: 002

Cluster Assignment of Novel Mycobacteriophages Using Tape Measure Protein (TMP) Gene

Cameron Sellers, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kristi Westover, Ph.D., and Victoria Frost, Ph.D

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Mycobacteriophages are taxonomically organized by morphological features and genome comparisons. We used a PCR system with subcluster-specific primers that screens for the Tape Measure Protein (TMP) gene. This methodology allows assignment of novel phages into their appropriate clusters without having to sequence the whole genome. The TMP gene, which codes for the major phage tail structural component, is universally found in all phages, and has proven to be effective in determining phage phylogeny. There are currently 17 known clusters and 30 sub-clusters. The goal of this study is to phylogenetically assign novel mycobacteriophages found in fresh water and soil in York County, South Carolina. This single-gene method for preliminary prediction could allow for phylogenetic investigation of phages from complex samples quickly and effectively. To be able to characterize phages prior to full genome sequencing is a useful tool in assessing which phages are significantly unique to require further genetic investigation.

Poster Number: 003

Geographic Differences in Class II MHC-Specific Epitopes of Zika Virus (ZIKV)

Julia Scott, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kristi Westover, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA arbovirus belonging to the Flavivirus genus. Zika has spread rapidly since the 2007 outbreak in South America, and more recently, in southern North America. It has also been directly linked to neurological disorders, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly. We collected 129 complete ZIKV genomes for phylogenetic analysis. Nucleotide sequences were aligned and phylogenies constructed with 1000 bootstrap replication, using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood algorithms. Phylogenetic data significantly supported two major ancestral lineages, Asian and African. Brazilian, Haitian, and Venezuelan strains were derived from the Asian strain, and more specifically, similarities are seen in regards to the French Polynesian strain. Chinese strains were also found in the Asian lineages, with other strains scattered among the different geographical strains of ZIKV. Our results support that recent North American outbreaks originated from South American strains. The U.S. strains from the 2016 outbreak are genetically similar, but are found in two significantly supported clades. To further examine differences between the American strains and those from Africa and Asia, we will measure synonymous and nonsynonymous mutation rates in 50 predicted T-cell class II MHC-specific epitopes of the Zika polyprotein for each geographic region. We hypothesize that the outbreaks in the Americas may be driven by the evolution of novel epitopes. Identification of specific genetic changes in these regions may provide insight for vaccine development.

Poster Number: 004

Visible Light-Promoted Additions of Potassium Organotrifluoroborates to Imines

Brittney Ciesa, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: James M. Hanna Jr., Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Recently, the use of visible light combined with a suitable photocatalyst to promote key bond-forming steps in organic synthesis has emerged as a viable strategy to achieve a number of important synthetic transformations. Visible-light photochemistry has several advantages over traditional ultraviolet (UV) radiation-promoted organic photochemistry. For example, many applications of UV photochemistry require quartz vessels to ensure the radiation can penetrate the vessel, and make use of wavelengths that can electronically excite organic substrates, potentially leading to unwanted side reactions. In contrast, visible light passes through ordinary glass, and small organic substrates do not typically absorb wavelengths in the visible range. The photocatalyst involved is often a ruthenium or iridium polypyridyl complex, which absorbs light in the visible range to give a relatively long-lived excited state, which can engage organic substrates in a series of single-electron-transfer (SET) events. The organic radicals thus generated participate in downstream reactions, leading to the final product(s). The ability of these photocatalysts to function as both SET oxidants and reductants within the same cycle suggests the possibility of a selective, redox-neutral, radical generation and cross-coupling strategy, where radicals derived from both an acceptor (A) and a donor (D) would engage in productive cross-coupling to form a product (A-D). Our group has successfully employed this approach for the formal 1,2-addition of potassium alkyltrifluoroborates to aryl aldimines in moderate to good yields.

Poster Number: 005

Effect of the pH on the Zeta Potential in the Metal Organic Framework Ni3(HITP)2

Darien K. Nguyen, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Fatima Amir, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) had its first practical use in 1933, and although the basic phenomena involved in EPD are well known and have been the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental research, EPD of metal organic-frameworks (MOFs) is still unknown. One of the key elements to a successful EPD is to find a systematic approach to making suspensions in which the particles have a high zeta potential, while keeping the ionic conductivity of the suspensions low. The zeta potential plays a role in the stabilization of the suspension, and simply changing the pH of the suspension will affect the zeta potential values. Herein, we study the effect of the pH on the zeta potential of the MOF Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (Ni3(HITP)2) suspension. The stability of Ni3(HITP)2 from its suspension in isopropanol and water was maximum at pH 7, at which negative zeta potential was maximum. Electrophoretic deposition, which is directly dependent on the zeta potential and determined by the ionic conductivity of the suspension, was the best at neutral pH values. The morphology and structure of the deposited layers were also characterized using SEM and XRD.

Poster Number: 006

Synthesis and Analysis of Potential Sphingosine Kinase 1 Inhibitors

Sara Manore, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: T. Christian Grattan, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The sphinogmyelin metabolic pathway is a popular target area of research due to the potential for apoptosis in cancer cells. In the pathway, sphinogmyelin may be converted to the final product of sphingosine-1-phosphate. Sphingosine-1-phosphate is associated with cell proliferation in cancer cells. This is due to the over-expression of sphingosine kinase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase 1 would prevent proliferation and lead to the desired apoptotic outcome, if a potent inhibitor can been identified. Beginning with a promising lead molecule based on in vitro studies, synthetic production of a number of structurally modified variations of the inhibitor were prepared to improve the overall hydrophilicity of the lead compound. These variations have been successfully synthesized and purified; they are now being tested against the enzyme for effective in vitro activity relative to the template inhibitor. Using a sphingosine kinase activity assay kit, the inhibitors are tested in the presence of ATP, sphingosine, and sphingosine kinase at varying concentrations to optimize the results. Our assays show activities and inhibition results relative to our template structure. We hope to continue to optimize and realize the potential of these inhibitors as a possible treatment option in this cancerous pathway.

Poster Number: 007

Snapchat, Smartphones, and New Media

Thomas Hughes, Winthrop University

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The vast majority of scholarly work on Snapchat as a form of media, and specifically new media, has focused almost solely on the potential for the application to be used as a lewd form of often arbitrary communication between young people; however, in my view, that understanding of the technology and that focus are all too narrow and concerned with upractices that hardly begin to define the scope of usage for the Snapchat application. Using the research and work of a few important media and semiotics scholars applied to some primary research I will gather via a survey and coding system, this study considers the potential reasons for Snapchat’s mass popularity and the possibility of viewing Snapchat itself and its use as a reflection of the forces that will drive the digital, smartphone era forward. In terms of New Media and based on my research, Snapchat is a reflection of the social and cultural movement away from language as the only viable form of expression and communication of complex ideas. Its multimodal status and the participatory culture surrounding its use create a reflection of the forces that draw users into different specific interfaces via smartphones, and encourage users to use the application.

Poster Number: 008

Alternatives to the Causes, Cures, and Reasonings of the Black Death in Europe, Compared to Medieval Religions’ Official Positions

Malcom D. Uloth, Jr. Jr, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Gregory D. Bell, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Several accomplished authors including George Decaux, Phillip Zeigler, Johannes Nohl, and later, Ole Benedictow, attempted to compile all the information about the Black Death and its later recurrences into one complete source. Until Benedictow, most attempts failed to completely understand how the Plague affected Europe. Some authors only focused on the Plague in England or France, or only on the consequences of the Plague. Even after Benedictow’s valued contributions, there still is no single volume that accurately covers the entire spectrum of believed causes. The Black Death is the deadliest pandemic in the history of Western Civilization; although its consequences have been adequately discussed, a compilation of all the Plague’s attributed, accepted, erroneous, or dismissed causes has not. This research fills that niche by showing what people living then (1348-1800) theorized about why this catastrophe occurred and continued to occur. This work seeks to categorize, survey, and create a compilation of all the Emic perspectives (perspectives concerning the Plague, by those who experienced the Plague) through the interpretation of primary and secondary source materials regarding the alternative causes, cures, or reasons behind why the Black Death occurred. This research is divided into themes, including pagan perspectives; medical perspectives; persecutions; and alternative, secular, or radical perspectives It also contrasts the major medieval religions’ official positions concerning where the Plague came from; why Christians and other religious people were suffering; how to combat (exercise demons) and prevent the Plague (prayer); whether God was causing the Plague and, if so, how to gain favor.

Poster Number: 009

Correlation of Food Insecurity with Obesity Rates by State

Chandler Dey, Winthrop University
Brianna Moring, Winthrop University
Madison Rowan, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Duha Hamed, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The purpose of this study is to examine the average obesity and food insecurity rates in the U.S. between 2014 and 2016. Food insecurity is the state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious foods. Obesity is measured by a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30. Our methods include analyzing statistical data provided by State of Obesity and the USDA. The data for both will be taken as the average from 2014-2016. We believe the two populations of adult obesity and household food insecurity are capable of being compared, since adults tend to be the first to become food insecure, placing their children’s needs above their own. Also, children may not be included in every household. We hypothesize that a higher state obesity rate will positively correlate to a higher level of food insecurity. Based on these data, we will then zone in on South Carolina and compare county rates of obesity and food insecurity.

Poster Number: 010

Cultivation Theory: Television and How It Affects One’s Perception of Culture

Thyanne Wright, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Aimee Meader, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

In this study, we investigate the relationship between television portrayals of ethnic minorities and how these minorities are perceived by heavy and light television viewers. We also examine how television portrayals of ethnic minorities impact viewers from the same group as are being portrayed, and whether television portrayals can enforce negative stereotypes. The study was conducted using a survey targeting American college students at a public university in the Southeast and a focus group using a convenience sample of an upper-level class at the same university. The cultivation theory serves as the foundation of the study as it explains how consuming television content alters the viewers’ perceptions of the world.

Poster Number: 011

Combating the Opioid Epidemic

Caitlan Walzer, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: William Schulte, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Not discriminating on age, race, or gender, this investigative reporting project examines the growing opioid epidemic and the impact it has had on the United States. Quickly spreading across the country, the epidemic has taken the lives of millions and has had a negative impact on those who have been directly involved with opioids and those who are the friends and families of those who are addicted. This research, much like the epidemic, targets the nation and is an educational tool that will hopefully give insight into the cause of the epidemic, as well as alternatives and ways to combat this growing problem. The methods used to examine the epidemic include the examination of public documents obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests and through document searches, alongside in-depth interviews with an expert in the healthcare industry and an individual who was personally impacted by the epidemic. The goal of this research is to understand the issues and circumstances that led to the opioid epidemic and its continued growth.

Poster Number: 012

Distracted Driving in South Carolina

Alyssa N. Sconzo, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: William Schulte, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM

Distracted driving is an issue that is plaguing the United States. There are many actions that can be considered distracting, making the road a dangerous place to be. As a resident of South Carolina, it was crucial to investigate how this issue is affecting South Carolina roads and its drivers. While there are laws in place, they are hard to enforce and as a result, the number of distracted driving incidents is grossly underreported. Through research of government documents and interviews, I uncovered what South Carolina law enforcement is doing to keep the roads safe and to hold drivers accountable for their actions. An in-depth with Captain Bobby Albert was valuable to my research, due to his position and his firsthand experience with South Carolina laws and drivers. Nationwide campaigns are bringing awareness to these issues and encouraging drivers in South Carolina and all across the United States to be more mindful behind the wheel, especially to avoid engaging with their cell phones while operating motor vehicles. While this is a growing issue that continues to be a challenge to enforce, South Carolina is taking the necessary steps to keep drivers and pedestrians as safe as possible. Ultimately, safe driving is the driver’s responsibility, and law enforcement just enforces the laws and regulations that are broken when a driver decides to be careless behind the wheel.

Poster Number: 013

Leg Strength and Independent Living in the Elderly

Xavier Parks, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The purpose of this review was to better understand leg strength and independent living among the elderly. Research shows that leg strength decreases with age, significantly after about 70 years of age. With this decrease in leg strength, everyday activities such as walking to the kitchen or sitting down in a chair become big challenges. The studies in this review of literature examine various ways that the elderly can use resistance training to increase their leg strength. The methods in these studies include cycling, squatting, leg presses, leg curls, and leg extensions. All of these methods were shown to increase not only leg strength, but also muscle mass and overall balance in the participants of the studies. The participants reported increased ability to complete daily tasks by themselves, and also improved efficiency in doing those tasks. The results found in this review can be used to implement routines for individuals who have experienced a decrease in leg strength, to help them regain that strength and independent living. Additionally, this review can serve to educate sedentary individuals on the benefits of performing leg exercises and increasing strength.

Poster Number: 014

Understanding the Effectiveness of Dry Needling in Upper and Lower Extremities

Shemeika McCray, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The purpose of this review is to understand the effectiveness of dry needling in the upper and lower extremities. Dry needling is a relatively new technique that is used by athletes, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength coaches, and physicians for rehabilitation. When using this procedure, an acupuncture needle is inserted into the participant’s skin and muscle to reduce myofascial trigger point (TrP). When a person has myofascial pain, he or she has an irritated area in the muscle that restricts range of motion and affects muscle activation. There is evidence to support the effectiveness of dry needling with stretching. Other evidence has compared the effect of dry needling on upper to lower extremities of the body. When using dry needling in the upper trapezius, participants had greater range of motion two days later; however, they experienced muscle soreness. There are also findings that compared the different types of dry needling. While some articles showed no significant difference when using dry needling, others did. Research has shown significant differences when using dry needling, such as increased pain intensity in the upper trapezius, pressure pain threshold, lower scores on the Disability of Arm, Hand and Shoulder, and the visual analogue assessments. Physicians should know if dry needling, stretching, or even manual compression work best for their clients. More research should be conducted to make sure dry needling is more effective than other procedures.

Poster Number: 015

A Review of Yoga and Pilates as Strength Training Mechanisms

JaNaysha Montgomery, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The purpose of this review was to better understand athlete perception of yoga and Pilates as effective strength training and conditioning mechanisms. Yoga and Pilates are similar in their style of exercise technique, and each provide a viable option for strength training for various population groups. Understanding the perceptions of athletes’ strength and conditioning programs is critical, as they serve to better prepare the athlete for competition. There is evidence to show that Pilates and yoga showed significant increases in levels of mental stability and physical endurance, as opposed to regular bouts of physical activity in athletes and senior-aged male adults. Research studies suggest that coaches tend to focus on reducing the risk of energy, increasing athletes’ enhancement, performance, and strength, all of which are benefits of both Pilates and yoga. Other studies concluded that yoga and Pilates aid in the inhalation and exhalation processes of participants. Yoga and Pilates are seen as strength training mechanisms that can increase longevity in athletes, and can be used primarily as natural strength training mechanisms.

Poster Number: 016

An Analysis of the Impact of Mass Incarceration on Minority Voter Participation

Meagan Holland, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Hye-Sung Kim, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Is the path from incarceration to partaking in the franchise considerably challenging for people of color? The American prison system has grown to become an elaborate and privatized system, strengthening the highly criticized institution of mass incarceration. The ramifications of actions such as President Reagan’s “war on crime” or President Clinton’s 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act only catalyzed the rate at which individuals faced incarceration for longer periods of time for a wider array of crimes. This paper examines an unintended negative consequence of the mass incarceration on former convicted felons: preventing them from exercising their rights and responsibilities as engaged citizens, particularly voter participation, by focusing on the disproportionate impacts for different racial groups. Using the state-level aggregate data on mass incarceration rates, racial and ethnic indicators, and turnout rates by various racial groups, this study tests the heterogeneous effects of mass incarceration rates on voter turnouts by different racial groups among former convicted felons. The main hypothesis to be tested is whether mass incarceration in the United States decreases the percentage of racial minority voter participation in comparison to that of the racial majority.

Poster Number: 017

Emotions And Decision-Making: Examining The Effect Of Different Colors On Emotions And Decision-Making

Kylie Harris, Winthrop University
Brianna McGee, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Tara J. Collins, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

In this study, we examined the effects of color on decision making. Our hypothesis was that the presence of color (red, blue, green) will have a correlated effect with certain emotions (anger, sadness, jealousy) when compared to decisions made in the absence of color (white). Our participants were undergraduate students from Winthrop University (recruited through their respective professors) and other adults (recruited through social media). In an online study we made on Qualtrics, we assessed the constructs of jealousy, sadness, and anger through three different scenarios and follow-up questions specific to each scenario and emotion. Jealousy was represented by green, sadness by blue, and anger by red. After analyzing the data, we found no significant results. Anger was the closest construct to having any significance, but it still was not statistically significant. Results concluded that perhaps there was not a relationship to find. However, there may have been a relationship that we could not find due to limitations of the study. One of these limitations was that the study was performed as an online survey. In further studies, it might be more beneficial to do a hard copy survey where the color variables could be better controlled. Another change that could be made is a section where participants have to match words for the emotions to colors. This would prime the participants to be in a specific emotional state, which could also impact their decisions.

Poster Number: 018

Young Adults’ Perceptions of Socially Appropriate Behaviors on Social Media

Jasmine Goode, Winthrop University
Mariah Landrum, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

We investigated young adults’ perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate behavior on social media. Participants were men (n = 25) and women (n = 55) with a mean age of 19.93 (SD = 2.77). Fifty-seven percent of participants were Caucasian, 31% were African-American, and the remainder reported other ethnicities. Participants responded to scales that assessed social media stress, jealousy in everyday life, and social media investment. We also created a list of online behaviors (e.g., posting political opinions, arguing publicly with a friend) and asked participants to rate the social appropriateness of each behavior. Participants were asked to imagine being “the opposite sex” and to respond to the same behaviors from that imagined perspective. Last, we asked participants to rate the social appropriateness of the behaviors from the imagined perspective of the “average young adult.” Our results revealed that young adults perceived themselves as having higher standards for appropriateness in social media than they believed their peers had. Women seemed to be especially prone to this belief. Race did not predict appropriateness of behavior. Perhaps gender was a powerful variable because women use social media for different reasons than men do, whereas ethnicity does not drive the motivations behind social media use. Violating our expectations, jealousy made individuals rate more behaviors as acceptable. One possibility is that jealous individuals use social media to monitor others and appreciate finding extensive online information. These findings add to our understanding of this popular communication tool.

Poster Number: 019

Factors of Attitudes Toward Interracial Relationships

Hayley Lutrario, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Tara J. Collins, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Interracial relationships have been viewed as taboo for years, however there has been a substantial increase in interracial unions in recent decades. In the current study, we were interested in investigating the factors that shape the attitudes toward interracial relationships. We conducted a survey measuring previous ethnic exposure, Cultural Mistrust, and overall attitudes toward interracial unions of the participant and the participant's parent(s); we drew from a sample of mainly female, college-aged students. We hypothesized that more ethnic exposure and less Cultural Mistrust would lead to more positive attitudes. We conducted several regression analyses to predict overall attitudes of the self and the parent. It was found that previous ethnic exposure did not predict attitudes toward interracial unions, but level of Cultural Mistrust was negatively correlated with the participant's attitudes toward interracial relationships. This shows that lower levels of Cultural Mistrust lead to more positive attitudes toward interracial unions. This expands the knowledge of factors contributing to the formation of attitudes and acceptance of interracial unions.

Poster Number: 020

Attitudes Towards Mental and Physical Illness

Ashley DeLuca, Winthrop University
Kayla Wright, Winthrop University
Ryan Zavitkovsky, Winthrop University
Nolan Williams, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Tara J. Collins, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

This research aims to examine the effect of type of illness (mental or physical) and severity of illness (mild or severe) on perceived control of the illness as well as favorable and unfavorable emotions towards each illness. Our participants were mostly college students, but also included participants recruited from social media using the same recruitment text. Participants were given an online questionnaire to measure perceived control as well as favorable and unfavorable emotions toward mental and physical illness. We hypothesized that participants would perceive more control over the illness for those with a mental illness than those with a physical illness. This was partially supported because severity was more related to perceived controllability, but there was a significant interaction. We also hypothesized that participants would perceive the locus of causality to be more within the person afflicted with a mental illness than a the person with a physical illness. This hypothesis was supported and there was a significant interaction. We hypothesized that participants would perceive the cause of mental illness to be less stable over time than the cause of physical illness, which was partially supported with a significant interaction. Our hypothesis that participants would have less favorable emotions towards mental illness compared to physical illness was supported. Our hypothesis that participants would have more unfavorable emotions toward mental illness compared to physical illness was partially supported; the main effect of severity on unfavorable emotions was significant. Future directions should examine perceived causes of mental and physical illnesses.

Poster Number: 021

Quality and Stability of Adults' Cross- and Same-Ethnicity Friendships

Di'Aundrea Thomas, Winthrop University
Twyla Howard, Winthrop University
Cody McKay, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

We compared young adults’ cross- and same-ethnicity relationships. Because similarity is an important factor in friendship maintenance, we hypothesized that adults’ same-ethnicity friendships would have higher stability than their cross-ethnicity friendships. Stability is an index of quality; therefore, we also hypothesized that the same-ethnicity friendships would be described as being of a higher quality. Participants were 65 young adults with a mean age of 19.33 (SD = 1.51). Participants randomly received one of two surveys. One version instructed participants to think of their closest, same-ethnicity friend while responding to the questions. The other instructed participants to think of their closest friend of another ethnicity. Then, participants responded to scales that assessed friendship quality, intimacy, and stability. Participants also responded to scales assessing barriers to cross-ethnic friendships and ethnic identity. We compared participants who were asked about same-ethnicity friendships to those who were asked about cross-ethnicity friendships and found support for one of our hypotheses. Young adults reported higher quality and more positive attributes associated with their same- versus cross-ethnicity friendships, but simultaneously reported similar levels of stability. These results differ from those found in children who reported lower stability and similar quality in their cross-ethnicity friendships. African American participants described the two relationships in unique ways, but concluded that the overall quality was the same. Caucasians described the relationship characteristics similarly, but concluded that the overall quality was better in same-ethnicity relationships. This mismatch is ironic because individuals of these two ethnicities are likely to be in cross-ethnicity friendships.

Poster Number: 022

The Role of Social Support and Stress in Positive Engagement and Burnout in Youth Sports

Landon C. Bailey, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Donna Nelson, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Participation in youth sports has been linked to benefits such as high physical self-esteem, enhanced social skills, and academic achievement. However, some athletes are plagued by distress and burnout. More research is needed to explain these contradictory outcomes in order to identify mechanisms for promoting beneficial athletic experiences for young people. We surveyed 18 male and 41 female young adults who reported recent participation in high school athletics. Participants responded to the Sport Engagement Questionnaire, the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, the Student-Athlete Life Stress Scale, and the Perceived Social Support in Sport Scale. When social support was low, athletes under high stress reported less engagement (M = 3.31) than those experiencing low levels of stress (M = 4.36). Engagement did not vary as a function of stress for those with high social support, F(1, 57) = 4.58, p < 0.03. Similarly, when social support was low, athletes under high stress reported more burnout (M = 3.03) than those experiencing low stress (M = 1.88). Burnout did not vary as a function of stress for those with high social support, F(1,57) = 11.24, p < 0.001. Our findings demonstrate that the experience of stress predicts both low engagement and high burnout in youth sports. However, perceived social support proved to serve as a moderator of these effects

Poster Number: 023

Students' Attitudes towards Mental Illness: A Comparative Analysis

Anna Grace McLaughlin, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Monique Constance-Huggins, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The number of people with mental illnesses continues to increase greatly, yet these remain some of the most stigmatized illnesses in the U.S. The stigma held about mental illness can affect the way individuals are treated in society. This study examinines attitudes towards mental illness among college students. Given that attitudes may vary by areas of study, this research specifically compares social work and non-social work students’ attitudes. Comparing the attitudes of social work students with those of other students could gauge the adequacy of the education that social work students are receiving on mental illness. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected on a convenience sample of 90 students using a twenty-item survey. Forty-six percent of the participants were social workers and fifty-four percent represented other majors. Results from the study support the hypothesis that social work students have more positive attitudes about mental illness than non-social work students. For example, using the Mann-Whitney test, the study found that social work students were less likely to agree that individuals with mental illness are a danger, unpredictable, and difficult to talk to. They were also most likely to disagree with the idea that people are generally sympathetic to those who suffer from a mental illness. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The study findings have implications for teaching content on mental illness across all majors.

Poster Number: 024

A Phonetical Analysis of the Allophones of the Phonemes /d/ and /g/ between a Native and Non-Native Speaker of Spanish

Elizabeth McAbee

Faculty Mentor: Valerie Jepson, Ph.D.

Rutledge

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

A phoneme is a distinct sound that differentiates one word from another. Not every phoneme has an allophone, a variant of a single phoneme. Unlike a phoneme, an allophone does not change or affect the meaning of a word; it only affects the pronunciation of a word. The phonemes /d/ and /g/ in Spanish both contain one phoneme, and two allophones, /d/ and /ð/, and /g/ and /ɣ/, respectively. The phonemes /d/ and /g/ are taught when learning the pronunciation of the alphabet in the Spanish language and the allophones are typically self-learned with experience or indulgence within a Spanish-speaking culture. As a result, native speakers of Spanish tend to have a different pronunciation of phonemes and allophones than non-native speakers who have only been taught Spanish pronunciation in terms of phonemes. I hypothesized that the phonemes /ð/ and /ɣ/ would not be found in a voice analysis of a non-native speaker’s pronunciation, due to the lack of experience and exposure to speaking Spanish. This hypothesis was investigated by analyzing the phonemic and allophonic pronunciation of the phonemes in question with voice analysis software, (i.e., Praat). Speech samples of each phoneme were extracted from continuous speech. Results include graphics and statistical analysis of the differences and similarities of the pronunciation of the two participants. My hypothesis was confirmed.

2:15 PM

Poster Number: 025

How Macroeconomic Indicators Affect the Stock Market

Tyler Wise

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This paper observes the analysis of macroeconomic indicators on stock market performance. Indicators have specific release dates and provide a general view of market performance. The stock market performance is represented by the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) 500 index. I imagine that, as macroeconomic indicators are released and move in positive directions, the stock market positively reacts. This analysis uses gross domestic product (GDP), consumer price index (CPI), unemployment rates, treasury bond yields, and University of Michigan consumer sentiment. According to the regressions conducted in this analysis, I will make a statement on the relationships once completed.

Poster Number: 026

Existence of Retirement Accounts and Exposure to Financial Education

Jordyn Elliott, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

As the baby boomers are retiring, it is becoming more evident that Americans do not have adequate funds saved for life after work. This paper will explore how financial literacy and education play a role in the preparedness, or lack thereof, of retirement funds. Technical knowledge, as well as understanding the tendencies of human decision-making, may affect the way businesses and educational institutions approach the topic of financial literacy. I hypothesize that the higher the exposure to financial education, the greater the likelihood that a retirement account exists. Included in this analysis are additional variables, such as home ownership, annual income, and student loan debt, sourced from the 2015 National Financial Capability Study.

Poster Number: 027

Decline of Men in the Labor Force

Keith Platt, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

What impact does the United States’ transition from a manufacturing economy to a services-based economy have on men and their participation in the labor force? This paper looks at how a change in the category of employment that dominates a state affects the number of men active in the labor force in that state. The research will come from total employment in each state, the total amount of employees in manufacturing for each state, the labor force participation of women in that state, and the level of education for working males versus females in the state. This paper will look at the expenses on capital investments versus labor costs to help determine if this is a cause of offshoring jobs to foreign countries for cheaper labor, or if it is a result of automation, the advancement in technology, taking the jobs of American men.

Poster Number: 028

Gun Control

Sammie Pantuosco

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

With the continuous news on the latest shooting, whether it be in a school, movie theatre, concert venue, or church, there have been increasing levels of attention and focus on gun control laws. There is extreme controversy about guns killing people versus “people killing people.” The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recorded the firearm mortality rates in every state; in 2016, the average across the country rose to 11.8 per 100,000 people. While many people agree that victims of violence should be able to protect themselves from murder, the question of gun ownership regulations is debatable. Do these laws have an impact on the overall murder rate? This question demands an answer. This paper attempts to come closer to the answer by exploring the differences in states’ gun laws and their corresponding murder rates. Influential factors to include are deaths by guns, as this is important to distinguish. The overall socioeconomic status and levels of diversity in states will be included, as well as the level of mental health in the state, as these factors have been publicly considered factors of murder. Race, age, and gender will also be considered as potential factors.

Poster Number: 029

Industry and Growth Impacts on Environmental Quality

Caroline Avera

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The United States is one of the only major countries to refuse to sign the recent Paris Climate Agreement. This agreement sets out a plan to combat global climate change and take action to slow the changing environment. This paper studies the environmental air quality in the United States in each of the contiguous states. It explores the impacts of population, annual state personal income and employment, number of automobiles, gross domestic product (GDP) by state in dollars, and state taxes on production. Some of these variables are in place to examine the relationship between quality of air and the quality of life.

Poster Number: 030

What Influences Incomes

Nicolas Arreste

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 2:15 PM

In most cases, college tuitions are expensive and lead to massive loans for college students. Student loan debt reached around $1.3 trillion in 2017. Will the amount of money students put into their educations give them good return on their investments? The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of education on income. To analyze the correlation between education and income, several statistical tests will be used. The hypothesis of this paper is that the level of income depends on education, but not exclusively. To test this hypothesis, independent variables such as median age of citizens in each state, types of degree obtained, or races/ethnicities of people who obtained degrees will be analyzed. Those variables will be used to determine if the amount of income depends on factors other than education level.

Poster Number: 031

The Impact of Crime on a State’s Economy

John Clemens

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This paper will delve into the impact of crime and incarceration on the performance of a state’s economy, as measured by its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Crime and the punishment of criminals have more than the obvious impact on a state’s economy; the losses resulting from the crime are exacerbated by the loss of available prime workforce and the subsequent impact to their future earnings. I will use Bureau of Economic Analysis Regional GDP data and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics, along with U.S. Census and Bureau of Justice Statistics Data to quantify the impact of crime and incarceration on state economic performance. I will use multiple-regression data analysis to quantify the relationships between my dependent variable of State GDP and increases in crime and incarceration rates, especially for those between 18 and 54. I expect to find evidence that higher crime and incarceration rates have a negative impact on State GDP.

Poster Number: 032

Economic Factors Influencing Life Expectancy Across Nations

Alexander Tsiukes

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Utilizing data from the World Bank and World Health Organization, this paper will attempt to explain factors influencing health across nations. The data sets collected contained information on different independent variables influencing health across countries, such as the poverty headcount ratio at $1.90, GNI per capita, expenditure on health care per capita, lower secondary education completion rates, and the number of physicians per 1000 citizens. The dependent variable used to determine the overall health of a country was the country’s life expectancy at birth. Specifically, this paper analyzes the relationship between a country’s poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 and life expectancy at birth. Regressions on these variables throughout my paper will show how closely they are related, if at all. Based on previous literature exploring the relationship between income inequality in a society and the respective society’s overall health, I hypothesize that life expectancy will increase significantly as the poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 decreases.

Poster Number: 033

The Income Gap between Races

Terrell Stauffer, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The income gap in the United States continues to increase between white families and minority families such as African Americans and Hispanics. Despite an increase in funding for educational improvement to decrease this gap, there has been not noticeable improvement. The wealth gap can be attributed to a variety of differences between these races: initial opportunity, behavior finance, income, educational attainment, and asset and investment portfolio. This paper investigates specifically income differences between white and non-white families. I hypothesize that there will be significant differences in income between white and non-white families. I will use the control variables of education attainment, family size, and work experience, each by state.

Poster Number: 034

How Income and Other Economic Characteristics Affect Drug Overdose Mortality

Brandon Neal, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Mortality rates in relation to drug overdoses have skyrocketed in recent years. This paper will examine how different economic and social characteristics affect the rate of mortality in drug overdoses. By examining how median income, unemployment, race, and other economic and social factors affect these deaths, I hope to discover how income and social class affect the mortality rate. The hypothesis is that there will be a higher concentration of drug-related deaths in lower income areas.

Poster Number: 035

So What Now? Examining the Correlation Between The Affordable Care Act and States' Education Systems

LaRaven Temoney, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was the staple of President Barack Obama’s administration and a signal that the United States was taking action to improve and provide better healthcare coverage for all of its citizens. ACA is composed of two legislative components – the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. Commonly referred to as “Obamacare,” this act has created much controversy and has its fair share of critics. With the constant changes affecting the United States’ healthcare system, this spills over into other sectors of the economy, including education. The purpose of this term project is to analyze whether or not the Affordable Care Act of 2010 had any effects on individual states’ education systems. By examining variables (e.g. per capita income, percentage eligible for Medicaid and Medicare, poverty index), available data may indicate that a correlation exists between access to healthcare and quality of states’ education systems.

Poster Number: 036

Is Video-Game-Based Game Theory Applicable to the Physical World?

Alexander Tsiukes, Winthrop University

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Virtual economies present in games such as World of Warcraft have the potential to be used as a testing ground for economic theory in the physical world. Under the assumption that players value currency in the game consistently, acting rationally in player-to-player exchanges, we can potentially develop economic models explaining trends in the physical world using a virtual space that is easily manipulated. One application area in particular to economics is testing different assumptions of auction theory using data gathered from World of Warcraft’s game auction house. However, before being able to apply any results observed in virtual worlds to the physical world, it is essential to determine whether or not the results of models based on virtual worlds have any actual relevance to the physical world. While human beings control the characters and are responsible for the actions within World of Warcraft, there are significant differences between the game world and the physical world (for instance, players have unlimited lives, making the cost of dying negligible) and models that work within the video game may not be applicable in real life. This paper will attempt to determine if auction theory based on transactions in World of Warcraft’s auction house could be appropriate for explaining auction-based transactions in the physical world.

Poster Number: 037

Impact of State Incentives on Unemployment Rates

Michaela Willard, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Laura Ullrich, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

States are experiencing increasing pressure to attract businesses. Competition among states is done largely through business incentives. The common goal of these incentives is to convey a sense of a good business climate, enticing new or existing companies to create new facilities and hire local workers to reduce unemployment. This paper looks at the impact that state business incentives have on unemployment rates. Incentives that will be tested include the number of tax credits, tax exemptions, grants, and the top business tax bracket by state. I predict that there will be no correlation between unemployment and the tested incentives, and that the increasing number of incentive programs stem from a competitive pressure between states.

Poster Number: 038

The Effect of Physiological Loading on Cortical Bone Remodeling in White-Tailed Deer Proximal Humerus

Jack Nguyen, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Meir Barak, Ph.D., D.V.M.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Remodeling, the replacement of primary bone with secondary (osteonal) bone, was shown to be affected by the type of stress (compression versus tension) and its magnitude. This study investigated the effect of loading on the morphology and geometry of secondary osteons in the proximal humerus of white-tailed deer. Two cross-sections from the proximal diaphysis of four white-tailed deer humeri were prepared using a low-speed, water-cooled diamond saw. One cross-section of each humerus was embedded in an epoxy block and viewed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the other cross-section was decalcified and viewed with a polarized light microscope. Next, multiple images of each cross-section were captured and then stitched together (PTGUI©) to create a full view of each humerus’ proximal transverse plane, in order to determine the areas of bone remodeling. Finally, secondary osteons’ geometries and sizes were measured (ImageJ©) for each humerus in the medial, lateral, cranial and caudal regions. Our results showed that secondary osteons in the cranial region are significantly larger, more angled medially, and less porous (with a smaller ratio of central canal area to osteonal area) than those found in the other three regions. On average, the osteon area in the cranial region is 6369 pixels2 compared to 4085, 3717, and 4163 pixels2 in the medial, caudal, and lateral regions, respectively. Osteons in the cranial aspect of the humerus are angled on average 105.8° to the frontal plane, while osteons in the other three regions are almost perfectly normal to that plane (~90°). The central canal area to osteonal area ratio is 3.7% for the cranial region, 4.8% for both the medial and lateral regions, and 4.7% for the caudal region. These findings are consistent with previous reports in other bones and species.

Poster Number: 039

The Relationship between Osteonal Geometry and Physiological Stresses (Compression versus Tension) in the Cranial and Caudal Aspects of White-Tailed Deer Proximal Humerus

Michael DeLashmutt, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Meir Barak, Ph.D, D.V.M.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Remodeling refers to the continued biological process of resorbing primary bone tissue and replacing it with a bone structure known as “secondary osteon” (or Haversian system). The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify bone remodeling in the proximal humerus of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We hypothesized that the cranial and caudal aspects of the proximal humerus, which are subjected to tension and compression, respectively, would demonstrate significantly different osteonal geometry, differing in characteristics such as size, circularity, and angle. Four proximal humeri cross-sections were embedded, polished, and then inspected with a polarizing microscope and stereoscope to determine areas of remodeling in the cranial and caudal aspects. Next, a scanning electron microscope was used to take high-resolution pictures of the caudal and cranial aspects. Finally, ImageJ© was used to count and assess the secondary osteons’ geometries. Our results revealed that the secondary osteons in the cranial aspect, which is subjected to tension, were significantly larger, less circular, and angled more medially, with relatively smaller central canals compared to secondary osteons in the caudal aspect, which is subjected to compression. These results are in line with previous studies showing smaller secondary osteons in areas subjected to compression. The conclusions of our study demonstrate the relationship between bone structure and function, and support the concept of bone functional adaptation.

Poster Number: 040

Characterizing Freshwater Macroinvertebrate Food Webs Using DNA-Based Methods

Benjamin Swartz, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Cynthia Tant, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Aquatic food webs are complex, and their study can provide valuable information on movement of energy and nutrients through ecosystems. Most food web studies involve microscopic analysis of gut contents that can be time consuming, and many prey species lack features that persist long enough in a predator’s gut for taxonomic identification. The application of newer, molecular-based approaches has the potential to provide previously unavailable resolution in aquatic food webs. We sampled and identified a variety of benthic macroinvertebrates at the Winthrop Recreational and Research Complex in Rock Hill, South Carolina. Individuals from selected predator taxa were used either to create gut content slides to identify prey categories or to extract DNA from gut contents for a variety of analyses. DNA extracted from selected individuals was sent off for analysis via next-generation sequencing. DNA extracted from other individuals was amplified using PCR with group-specific primers to determine presence or absence of those taxa in predator guts. These comparative data will ultimately provide baseline taxonomic data on food web interactions in lake, wetland, and stream habitats at the Complex.

Poster Number: 041

Characterizing Freshwater Macroinvertebrate Food Webs at the Winthrop Recreational and Research Complex

Tira L. Beckham, Winthrop University
Benjamin Swartz, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Cynthia Tant, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Aquatic food webs are complex, and their study can provide valuable information on movement of energy and nutrients in ecosystems. Most food web studies involve microscopic analysis of gut contents that can be time consuming, and many prey species lack features that persist long enough in a predator’s gut for taxonomic identification. The application of newer, molecular-based approaches has the potential to provide previously unavailable resolution in aquatic food webs. We sampled and identified a variety of benthic macroinvertebrates at the Winthrop Recreational and Research Complex. Individuals from selected predator taxa were used either to create gut content slides to identify prey categories or to extract DNA from gut contents for analysis using NextGen sequencing. These comparative data will ultimately provide baseline taxonomic data on food web components in lake, wetland, and stream habitats at the Complex.

Poster Number: 042

The Implementation of 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Biomedical Research, Education, and Community Service at a Primarily Undergraduate Institution

Chandler E. Burt, Winthrop University
Anneke van Eldik, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Stern, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Technologies such as 3D printing and 3D bioprinting are becoming increasingly common in biomedical research. These technologies hold great promise for the production of custom devices, including living bioengineered products, that improve the lives of patients. The production of advanced bioengineered products requires the combined expertise of several fields, including engineering and biology. However, introduction to technologies such as 3D printing and 3D bioprinting is not common for undergraduate biology students, particularly those at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs). Here, we describe a project in which undergraduate students employed a 3D printer and a 3D bioprinter for research purposes, while also demonstrating their potential to be used in undergraduate biology education. A relatively inexpensive Flashforge Creator Pro was used to 3D print objects for research and educational use and will serve as the platform to introduce Winthrop biology students to basic 3D printing technology. A BioBot1 was used in our 3D bioprinting work and will also be used to introduce students in select Winthrop biology courses to bioprinting technology. In addition, we have established the Giving Hands student organization, which will be a Winthrop-based chapter of the e-NABLE community – a global organization whose members volunteer to 3D print and distribute mechanical hands for individuals with upper limb differences. Together, these efforts have established the infrastructure required to introduce Winthrop biology students to 3D printing, 3D bioprinting, the workflow involved in each (design, programming/software, troubleshooting), and the many applications of these technologies within the biological sciences.

Poster Number: 043

Seeding and Recellularization of Porcine Acellular Muscle Matrix Biomaterials with Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and C2C12 Myoblasts

Anneke van Eldik, Winthrop University
Chandler E. Burt, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Stern, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The ability of skeletal muscle to repair itself via regenerative mechanisms is limited to instances where tissue damage is relatively small. When volumetric muscle loss occurs, the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is exceeded. This results in a permanent loss of muscle volume and function. Current strategies to replace or repair such damage are inadequate. The goal of this project is to develop natural biomaterials that facilitate the engineering and/or regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue by providing a myoinductive environment for seeded and/or infiltrating cells. We hypothesized that scaffolds and hydrogels composed of porcine acellular muscle matrix (PAMM) could be efficiently recellularized and support myogenic differentiation. Here, we describe the production and characterization of PAMM scaffolds and gels. Histological analyses, DNA content measurement, and scanning electron microscopy show that porcine skeletal muscle tissue can be effectively decellularized and processed into both a sheet-like scaffold and a hydrogel. We also demonstrate that PAMM biomaterials can be recellularized with murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the C2C12 myoblast cell line. These results demonstrate the potential for PAMM biomaterials to be employed in tissue-engineering- and regenerative-medicine-based strategies for repairing volumetric muscle loss.

Poster Number: 044

The Development of Porcine Acellular Muscle Matrix Hydrogel for Use as a Bio-Ink in 3D Bioprinting

Anneke van Eldik, Winthrop University
Chandler E. Burt, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Stern, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Printable biomaterials (bio-inks) for 3D bioprinters are often expensive and can be difficult to manufacture. Bio-inks suitable for 3D bioprinting are typically biocompatible gels that are both thin enough to be extruded from the print head at low pressures and capable of holding their shape after extrusion. The ability to hold shape can be an intrinsic property of the bio-ink, or it can be achieved immediately after extrusion of the material via various crosslinking strategies and/or with the use of support materials. Here, we describe the development of a novel bio-ink from porcine skeletal muscle. Porcine longissimus dorsi is large and lean muscle that is relatively inexpensive and easy to acquire. Our lab has previously decellularized tissue from this muscle into a solid material called Porcine Acellular Muscle Matrix (PAMM) and shown that PAMM scaffolds can be recellularized with different cell populations. To produce PAMM bio-ink, tissue was processed into thin slices, decellularized, lyophilized, and ground into a fine powder. PAMM powder was then digested with the enzyme pepsin under acidic conditions, which breaks apart the components of the tissue’s extracellular matrix. After neutralization of the resulting solution and raising the temperature, a hydrogel of PAMM was formed. Our next step is to seed cells into PAMM hydrogel to determine its viability as a three-dimensional cell culture/delivery platform. Subsequent research will focus on optimizing the hydrogel for use as PAMM bio-ink in 3D bioprinting applications.

Poster Number: 045

The Tensile Stiffness and Strength of Trabecular Bone Structure along its Three Princpal Orientations: A 3D printed model

nicholas tucker, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Meir Barak, Ph.D., D.V.M.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Trabecular bone is a complex 3D mesh of bony rods and plates, which is found internally to the cortex of many long and short bones. Since trabecular bone structure is unique (no two tissues are the same), and mechanically testing a trabecular sample involves loading until failure (each sample can be tested only once), the precision of trabecular bone tissue mechanical measurements tends to be low, and it is impossible to mechanically test the exact same trabecular structure in multiple orientations. This introduces a significant problem when trying to measure trabecular stiffness (the amount of deformation under load) and strength (the maximum load before structure failure). Here, we are using a novel technique, namely 3D printing, to reproduce a large number of identical trabecular bone structure replicas reconstructed from a sheep talus bone. In this study, we are testing in tension a cubical 3D-printed sample (4.5 mm on a side) along its three principal axes (n = 30 per orientation, for a total of 90 samples). In order to apply tension, two antipode planes of each cube were extended as solid 9-mm beams in opposite directions (final beam dimensions of 22.5 × 4.5 × 4.5 mm), to allow hold by the testing machine grips (Instron 5942). Each beam was loaded between the two grips such that only the center 4.5-mm trabecular replica was subjected to tension. Each test (n = 90) was run until failure, and cube stiffness and strength were recorded. The working hypothesis is that the axial direction (parallel to the long axis of the bone) will demonstrate the highest stiffness and strength values compared to the other two orthogonal directions. Currently, we have 3D printed and loaded 45 of the 90 replicas. Preliminary results reveal that, as predicted, the trabecular structure is significantly stronger in tension along the axial direction.

Poster Number: 046

Spheroid Culture of Murine and Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Alters the Expression of Genes that Regulate Developmental Potency

Melissa A. Barr, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Stern, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent, mesenchymal stem cells that are found within the microvasculature of adipose tissue. While ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, they cannot match the differentiation potential of pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Previous research has shown that stem cells are sensitive to the composition and dimensionality of their culture environment. We have shown that culturing murine ADSCs as three-dimensional spheroids alters their gene expression compared to ADSCs cultured using traditional, two-dimensional methodology. We hypothesized that human ADSCs cultured as spheroids and in two dimensions would also exhibit differential gene expression, and that the changes in gene expression would mirror those observed in murine ADSCs. To investigate our hypothesis and optimize our protocol for generating spheroids, we compared our traditional hanging-drop method to the use of micropore plates that are specially designed for producing spheroids. Our results suggest that human ADSC gene expression is significantly altered by spheroid culture, with some changes mirroring what was observed in murine ADSCs. The method of spheroid generation had little impact on the results; however, the workflow associated with use of the micropore plates is much more efficient and better suited for these experiments. Future work will investigate the ability of spheroid-cultured ADSCs to differentiate into particular cell lineages, with an emphasis on skeletal myogenic differentiation.

Poster Number: 047

Genomic Annotation of Mycobacterium smegmatis Bacteriophages Rhynn and ExplosioNervosa

Brady A. Black, Winthrop University
Daniel R. Croke, Winthrop University
Baily M. Crolley, Winthrop University
Joshua L. Le Clerg, Winthrop University
Allyssa L. Lewis, Winthrop University
Samantha L. Mcneil, Winthrop University
Alyssa P. Paskowitz, Winthrop University
Allison T. Reed, Winthrop University
Charlene M. Simpson, Winthrop University
Mikaela A. Way, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Victoria Frost, Ph.D., and Kristi Westover Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

In conjunction with the HHMI Science Education Alliance – Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) Program, two novel bacteriophages were isolated and characterized. Phage DNA samples were sequenced at Pittsburg State University. Both shared sequence homology with known members of the Cluster A mycobacteriophages. Rhynn belongs to sub-cluster A1 and ExplosioNervosa belongs to sub-cluster A9, each containing approximately 90 open reading frames. ExplosiaNervosa is 53,014 base pairs in length, with 61.9% GC content, while Rhynn is 52,522 base pairs in length, with 62.0% GC content. Each open reading frame was evaluated to determine start sites, using algorithms assessing coding potential and ribosomal binding scores, as well as homology with other known phages. Putative functions were determined using homology searches at BLASTp (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and HHPred (Max Plank Institute for Developmental Biology). This research expands our understanding of the genomic diversity of bacteriophages in this geographic region.

Poster Number: 048

Isolation, Purification, and Amplification of Novel, Locally Discovered Bacteriophages in Rock Hill, South Carolina

Brady A. Black, Winthrop University
Daniel R. Croke, Winthrop University
Baily M. Crolley, Winthrop University
Joshua L. Le Clerg, Winthrop University
Allyssa L. Lewis, Winthrop University
Samantha L. Mcneil, Winthrop University
Alyssa P. Paskowitz, Winthrop University
Allison T. Reed, Winthrop University
Charlene M. Simpson, Winthrop University
Mikeala A. Way, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Victoria Frost, Ph.D., and Kristi Westover, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This is Winthrop University’s second year as part of the SEA-PHAGES program (Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science) sponsored by the HHMI Science Education Alliance. This program was developed to expand knowledge of locally collected bacteriophages across the world, and at the same time, to expose freshman undergraduate students to inquiry-based, genuine research early on in their careers. In the fall of 2017, 10 students used microbiological techniques to each isolate a unique bacteriophage that infected the bacterial host Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155. Individual phages were purified to obtain identical plaque morphologies and then amplified to collect High Viral Titers (HVT). Using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the phages were shown to all belong to the Siphoviridae group of mycobacteriophages, and presented with a variety of capsid sizes and tail lengths. Molecular techniques, including comparing restriction enzyme digest patterns of the viral DNA, enabled the student group to decide on which phages should be further analyzed at the genomic level and sent to the SEA-PHAGES team to be sequenced. This research not only adds to the increasing characterization and knowledge of novel phages being discovered in this area of South Carolina, but also continues to include Winthrop University and its students as members of a nationally renowned research program.

Poster Number: 049

The Effect of 3D Printing Layer Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of the 3D Printed Trabecular Model

Meha Patel, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Meir Barak, Ph.D., D.V.M.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a process that creates solid, 3D shapes by incremental deposition of printing material from sequential 2D layers. The purpose of this study is to determine if printed layer orientation affects the object’s stiffness. Our working hypothesis stated that loading an object perpendicular to its 3D printing layer orientation would result in higher stiffness compared to loading the same object parallel to 3D printing layer orientation. First, five 10-mm3 isotropic solid cubes were 3D printed and tested in compression along their three primary axes. One direction of loading was perpendicular to the printed layers and the two other directions of loading were parallel to the direction of printing. Our results revealed that the cubes behaved stiffer when they were loaded perpendicular to the printed layer orientation compared to when they were loaded parallel to the printed layer orientation. This decrease in stiffness is probably due to induced shear between adjacent printed layers when the sample is loaded parallel to the direction of printing. There was no significant difference in stiffness between the two orientations parallel to the printed layer orientation. Next, two sets of five 18-mm3 orthotropic trabecular bone replicas were 3D printed. Each set of five replicas was printed along a different principal axis. The ten cubes were then tested in compression and the stiffness of identical orientations was compared. Our results demonstrated that, contrary to the isotropic solid cubes, since trabecular structure is orthotropic, one orientation was inherently stiffer than the other, regardless of printing orientation

Poster Number: 050

The Effect of the Peruvian Plant Extract, Croton lechleri (Dragon’s Blood), on PC3 Prostate Tumor Cell Apoptosis

Cassidy Hess, Winthrop University

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Cancer can develop when normal cells continue to divide uncontrollably and avoid the normal process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Traditional Western cancer treatments include medications, radiation, and chemotherapy, each of which are not entirely effective all the time. Croton lechleri, or Dragon’s Blood, is a commonly used Peruvian treatment for hemorrhaging, open wounds, and tumor growth. Peruvian shamans use Dragon’s Blood to help alleviate the symptoms associated with prostate cancer. Previous investigations in our lab have shown that Dragon’s Blood can significantly reduce cell proliferation in PC3 cells. To further determine if Dragon’s Blood affects prostate cancer progression, I investigated the effectiveness of Dragon’s Blood on inducing cellular apoptosis on the prostate cancer cell line PC3. Latex extracts of Dragon’s Blood were prepared in water, according to methods described by Peruvian shamans. PC3 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of the extract for varying times and the amount of apoptosis was determined using a Molecular Probes EnzChek Caspase 3 Assay kit. Dragon’s Blood induced apoptosis with whole extract and a one-to-one ratio of Dragon’s Blood to media at six hours. We conclude that Dragon’s Blood does induce cell apoptosis in PC3 cells.

Poster Number: 051

Induction of Apoptosis by Uncaria tomentosa (Cat’s Claw) Extract in Prostate Cancer

Victoria Deatherage, Winthrop University

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers found in men around the world. Recently, cancer studies have become more focused on finding homeopathic remedies to combat cancer as people move away from more toxic, traditional Western cancer treatments. Uncaria tomentosa, commonly known as Cat’s Claw, is a woody vine found in the Amazonian rainforest and has been commonly used for its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous properties by the local shamans. Previous investigations in our lab have shown that Cat’s Claw increased proliferation and had no effect on cell invasion. The purpose of this study was to determine if U. tomentosa extract can induce controlled cell death, or apoptosis, in the specific prostate cancer cell line, PC3. First, Cat’s Claw extract was prepared following Peruvian shamans’ methodology. PC3 cells were grown under normal cell growth conditions except for the addition of the increasing concentrations of Cat’s Claw extract. The effect of Cat’s Claw on the PC3 apoptosis was determined using a Molecular Probes EnzChek Caspase 3 Assay kit. The concentrations of 0.1X and 0.5X Cat’s Claw were shown to induce apoptosis in PC3s at four hours. From this study, we determined that Cat’s Claw does induce apoptosis in PC3 cells.

Poster Number: 052

Investigating Semaphorin 3A as a Possible Repulsive Axon Guidance Molecule in the Chick Visual System.

Maja Stefanowska-Cieslak, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Eric Birgbauer, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

During the development of the visual system, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) must project their axons to the synaptic targets in the brain. A variety of different molecules, known as axon guidance cues, play an important role in this process. At the end of each axon there is a growth cone, a finger-like projection that detects these molecules in the environment and reacts to them. Some axon guidance cues are repulsive and cause a growth cone collapse and retraction. One such axon guidance molecule is semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), which has been shown to cause dorsal root ganglion cells (DRG) to undergo growth cone collapse in vitro. In the visual system, previous studies indicate that Sema3A leads to RGC growth cone collapse in mouse and Xenopus, but not in chick. We have analyzed this species difference and, contrary to previous literature, we have found that Sema3A treatment leads to a dose-dependent growth cone collapse of retinal axons as well as DRGs in embryonic chick. Therefore, Sema3A might play an important role during the development of the visual system.

Poster Number: 053

Impact of Natural Disturbance on the Growth and Survival of the Endangered Schweinitz’s Sunflower, Helianthus schweinitzii

David Bailey, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kunsiri Grubbs, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This study investigated the impact of disturbances on the growth of a rare sunflower species of the southeastern United States, Schweinitz’s sunflower. Its overall population has declined due to development and environmental degradation. We hypothesized that low levels of disturbances stimulate the growth of this sunflower. The investigation involved four sources of disturbance: herbivory, competition, soil pollution, and shading; all lasting for six months. To mimic herbivory, the plants were cut and allowed to retain few nodes. The control showed the highest growth and formed the highest number of lateral shoots. In contrast, the plants with the most damage produced the most lateral stems, which formed from the tuberous rhizome. To examine the effect of competition on growth, grasses were planted along with the sunflowers. The growth of the sunflowers was highest in the areas that had 50% grass coverage, the highest competition treatment. To simulate soil pollution along the roadside, we applied used motor oil to the soil around the sunflowers weekly. Some of the plants treated with the highest concentration (0.75%) died, but later formed lateral stems. To examine the effect of shading on growth, a shade cloth was placed above them. The plants that were kept under a 70% shading cloth grew the least but formed the highest number of flowers. Overall, our results suggest that Schweinitz’s sunflower could survive when it is impacted by disturbances. Of all the tested disturbances, shading was the factor that negatively affected the growth of this sunflower the most.

Poster Number: 054

Synthesis of Heterocyclic Biaryls as Aggregation Inhibitors for Alzheimer’s Amyloid-β Peptide

Benjamin P. Hernandez, Winthrop University
Mouskudah G. Murray, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: James M. Hanna Jr., Ph.D., and Robin K. Lammi, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) self-assembles into neurotoxic, β-structured aggregates, which are the primary components of the extracellular senile plaques characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. A variety of small molecules have been shown to inhibit the aggregation process; typically, these contain aromatic groups and one or more hydrogen-bond donors. Previous studies in our group have demonstrated that biphenyltetrols exhibit varying degrees of efficacy as Aβ aggregation inhibitors. 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetrol (3,4-BPT) effectively abrogates Aβ aggregation at stoichiometric concentrations (IC50 ~1X); other biphenyltetrol isomers were found to be less effective (IC50 ~2X to >10X). We speculate that this may be due to differences in ability to bind to Aβ through hydrogen bonding. Recent modeling studies suggest that binding of small molecules to Aβ may occur via several types of intermolecular interactions, including both hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions (i.e., π-stacking). In addition, other literature data indicate that pyridine-benzene and pyridinium-benzene π-stacking interactions are stronger than those between two benzene rings. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that incorporation of pyridine and/or pyridinium moieties into the above-described hydroxybiaryl scaffold may lead to increased inhibition of Aβ aggregation. Therefore, a series of dihydroxyphenylpyridines and pyridones were synthesized for evaluation via a Suzuki coupling/demethylation protocol. An appropriate bromopyridine was coupled with 3,4-dimethoxyphenylboronic acid; excellent yields of intermediates were obtained. Demethylation with BBr3 or 48% aqueous HBr gave the final products. N-methylation with dimethyl sulfate gave the corresponding cationic pyridinium substrates. Evaluation of these compounds’ inhibitory efficacy is underway.

Poster Number: 055

Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterocyclic Biaryls as Aggregation Inhibitors for Alzheimer’s Amyloid-β Peptide

Benjamin P. Hernandez, Winthrop University
Mouskudah G. Murray, Winthrop University
Brandy L. Crenshaw, Winthrop University
Augustine V. Vinson, Winthrop University
Matthew J. Hurtt, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: James M. Hanna Jr., Ph.D., and Robin K. Lammi, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) self-assembles into neurotoxic, β-structured aggregates, which are the primary component of the extracellular senile plaques characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. A variety of small molecules have been shown to inhibit the aggregation process; typically, these contain aromatic groups and one or more hydrogen-bond donors. Previous studies in our group have demonstrated that biphenyltetrols exhibit varying degrees of efficacy as Aβ aggregation inhibitors. 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetrol (3,4-BPT) effectively abrogates Aβ aggregation at stoichiometric concentrations (IC50 ~1X); other biphenyltetrol isomers were found to be less effective (IC50 ~2X to >10X), perhaps due to differences in ability to bind to Aβ through hydrogen bonding. Recent modeling studies suggest that binding of small molecules to Aβ may occur via several types of intermolecular interactions, including both hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions (i.e., π-stacking). In addition, other studies indicate that pyridine-benzene and pyridinium-benzene π-interactions are stronger than similar benzene-benzene interactions. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that incorporation of pyridine and/or pyridinium moieties into the above-described hydroxybiaryl scaffold may lead to increased inhibition of Aβ aggregation. Therefore, a series of dihydroxyphenylpyridines and pyridones were synthesized for evaluation via a Suzuki coupling/demethylation protocol. An appropriate bromopyridine was coupled with 3,4-dimethoxyphenylboronic acid; excellent yields of intermediates were obtained. Demethylation with BBr3 or 48% aqueous HBr gave the final products. N-methylation with dimethyl sulfate gave the corresponding cationic pyridinium substrates. Preliminary evaluation results indicate that molecules expected to exhibit stronger π-π interactions with Phe residues of Aβ do indeed exhibit greater inhibitory activity.

Poster Number: 056

Evaluation of Heterocyclic Biaryls as Aggregation Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Peptide

Brandy L. Crenshaw, Winthrop University
Augustine V. Vinson, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Robin K. Lammi, Ph.D., and James M. Hanna Jr., Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a peptide of 39-43 amino acids that self-assembles into neurotoxic aggregates implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. A variety of small molecules have been shown to inhibit the aggregation process; typically, these contain aromatic groups and one or more hydrogen-bond donors to enable binding to Aβ. We have previously demonstrated that biphenyltetrols (BPTs) exhibit varying degrees of efficacy as Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Of nine BPT isomers studied, 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetrol (3,4-BPT) is the most successful, effectively abrogating Aβ aggregation at stoichiometric concentrations (IC50 ~1X); other isomers are significantly less effective (IC50 ~2X to >10X), perhaps due to decreased abilities to hydrogen-bond with Aβ. Recent literature suggests that π-π interactions (i.e., π-stacking) may also be implicated in inhibitor binding to Aβ, potentially involving Phe residues in the central region of the peptide. In addition, studies with model compounds have shown that benzene-pyridine and benzene-pyridinium interactions are successively stronger than that between two benzene rings. Based on these observations, we have synthesized a series of hydroxybiaryl architectures incorporating pyridine or pyridinium rings, hypothesizing that these moieties may confer greater efficacy as aggregation inhibitors due to improved binding to Aβ. IC50 values have been determined via the Congo red spectral shift assay. We find successive, measurable improvements in inhibitory efficacy when the phenyl ring of 4-phenylcatechol (IC50 ~5X) is replaced with a pyridine ring (IC50 ~4X) or an N-methylpyridinium (methylsulfate counterion; IC50 <2X). A similar trend is observed between 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxypyridine (IC50 ~10X) and its N-methylated derivative (IC50 ~4X). Preliminarily, these results support our hypothesis and may suggest a role for π-stacking in inhibitor binding to Aβ.

Poster Number: 057

Trace Fossil Assemblages of the Lower Pilot Shale, Great Basin, U.S.A.

Rebecca L. Jackson, Winthrop University
John Tyler Robbins, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Diana Boyer, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Ichnodisparity is a classification system for trace fossils that relies on the architectural structure of trace fossils to categorize them and can be used to interpret and compare community structure. The lower Pilot Shale, Famennian in age, was sampled at two localities in western Utah to record Late Devonian infuanal communities and investigate lateral variability in community structure. The two localities, Deadman Wash and Conger Mountain, are approximate 30 km apart and preserve variable trace fossil communities within calcareous shale to fine grained sandstones. Categories of architectural design were used in place of ichnotaxa to determine relative abundance of each category at each locality, and from this the diversity, richness, and evenness, as well as the density packing of trace fossils present was calculated. The assemblages from each locality were described using the eight identified categories of architectural designs, and the categories of simple horizontal burrows, passive horizontal burrows, vertical burrows, and paired trackways were found at both localities. Overall, the assemblages were similar, although richness at Deadman Wash was higher and the density of vertical burrows was higher at the Conger Mountain locality. These assemblages preserve conditions before the onset of the Hangenberg extinction event and, therefore, provide a baseline for comparison against post-extinction infaunal communities, as well as other studies of trace fossil ecology in the Late Devonian of the Great Basin.

Poster Number: 058

Synthesis of Novel Oxazoline Compounds for Use as Insecticides and the Evaluation for Mosquitocidal and Larvalcidal Activity

Ansley Nemeth, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Bruce Melancon, Ph.D., University of Notre Dame

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The extreme rise of vector-borne infectious diseases such as the Dengue and Zika viruses has become an increasing threat to global health. While these diseases have been around for quite some time, there have been increasing issues with combating them. The mosquitoes that carry these diseases have become more resistant to the insecticides on the market. Many therapies used to combat these diseases are expensive, hard to supply in the field, and have various serious side effects. Apart from yellow fever, there are no vaccines on the market for vector-transmitted diseases. Our goal as a lab is to create insecticides that can combat resistant misquotes. To do this, we are taking known compounds and making analogs of them. These compounds specifically target a G-coupled protein receptor in the mosquito that is required for movement and reproduction. Prior literature proved that the protein had been targeted by oxazoline insecticide molecules, which showed effectiveness against aphids and mites. Using the oxazoline synthesis as a framework, we altered the chemical structures that we believe may affect the interaction and conformational change that occurs in the octopamine receptor and synthesized seven novel oxazoline compounds. The purity of the compounds was assessed using analytical techniques such as LC-MS, TLC, and 1H NMR. The newly synthesized compounds were tested through in vitro and in vivo assays. It was thought the compounds would have effectiveness against the mosquitoes, but through the assays it was shown the compounds had no larvalcidal or mosquitocidal activity.

Poster Number: 059

The Reaction of O-Silylated Cyanohydrin Anions with Epoxides as an Alternative for the Enantio- and Diastereoselective Preparation of Aldols

Caylie McGlade, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Aaron Hartel, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

One of the most important carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry is the aldol condensation, which forms a beta-hydroxy carbonyl, or “aldol” product. With this type of reaction, up to two new chiral centers can form, making diastereoselectivity important; however, it is difficult to achieve with the traditional aldol reaction, requiring the use of expensive chiral auxiliaries and additional synthetic steps. Other advancements have been made to produce an aldol product through non-aldol pathways, such as the Jung reaction, which uses the rearrangement of a functionalized epoxide and provides good diastereoselectivity but does not form a carbon-carbon bond. Our chemistry uses an O-silylated cyanohydrin anion reacted with an epoxide to form the aldol product, which results in good diastereoselectivity while forming a carbon-carbon bond. Previous research has gone into optimizing reaction conditions and finding compatible epoxides, while this summer we focused on the scope of which aryl groups on the cyanohydrin worked with the reaction. A series of O-silylated cyanohydrins were synthesized and reacted with LiHMDS base to deprotonate, then reacted with an epoxide in the alkylation step. The reaction was stopped with a subsurface quench in saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The product was then reacted with TBAF to deprotect the cyanohydrin. Thus far, the only aryl group substitutions to work with the reaction are naphthyl, phenyl, and pyridine groups. Further exploration of the scope of this project will include synthesis and reaction of other groups on the cyanohydrin.

Poster Number: 060

Fabrication of WS3-x Thin Films as Photocathodes for Driving Photocatalyzed Water Splitting

Maria F. Ojeda, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: : Clifton Harris, Ph.D.; harrisc@winthrop.edu

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

A novel spin-coating method has been developed for the synthesis of WS3-x thin films on transparent, conductive substrates. These films, under external bias, have been shown to catalyze hydrogen gas evolution in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. By layering this p-type material onto a suitable oxygen-evolving catalyst, deactivation processes such as photobleaching can be prevented without the use of sacrificial additives, and both hydrogen and oxygen evolution can be sustained over extended durations of illumination.

Poster Number: 061

Low Temperature Synthesis of Monodisperse, Highly Quantized CdX Nanoparticles and Subsequent Fabrication of Thin Film Photoanodes via Electrophoretic Deposition

Cale B. Gaster, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Clifton Harris, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

A low-temperature, ambient-atmosphere synthetic method for the fabrication of quantized, monodisperse cadmium chalogenide nanoparticles with high zeta potentials has been developed. These particles can be used to obtain uniform, transparent thin films by electrophoretic deposition, which may be utilized for photo-catalyzed hydrogen evolution from water. Subsequent addition of a second layer of an oxygen-evolving catalyst may provide a pathway for the prevention of hole-induced decomposition of the CdX layer and allow for sustainable water splitting without the use of sacrificial additives or external biases.

Poster Number: 062

Cloning, Expression, Purification, and Crystallization of GH115 α-Glucuronidase from Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 and Xanthomonas citri

Jesslyn Park, Winthrop University

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Rapid depletion of global fossil fuel reserves as a result of modern industrialization has prompted bioenergy research to economically yield biofuel from biomass. Biomass – plant-based, commonly waste material – harbors cell-wall sugars as potential substrates for bioethanol conversion. As these plant polymers are recalcitrant, enzymes are required for efficient degradation to generate fermentable products. Such enzymes are largely within families of glycosyl hydrolases, which encompass branched-sugar cleaving α-glucuronidases. In this study, two bacterial GH115 α-glucuronidases are expressed, purified, and crystallized for structural determination by X-ray crystallography. Elucidating the atomic structures of these novel α-glucuronidases will allow for better mechanistic understanding and applicability as biocatalysts for bioethanol production.

Poster Number: 063

Applications of Aqueous Stability Diagrams to Hydrothermal Synthesis

Arthur Todd, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Maria Gelabert, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Hydrothermal methods have been successful in polycrystalline and single-crystal synthetic schemes. This method's most beneficial advantages are mild working temperatures compared to the high temperatures required for solid-state reaction or melt crystal growth. Mild hydrothermal methods (<230>°C) for synthesis of ceramic powders have used thermodynamic calculations to optimize yields for chemical systems such as lead titanate and hydroxyapatite. These calculations are accomplished with OLI Stream Analyzer 9.5, with a large databank of thermodynamic information for solids and aqueous species and calculation limits of 300 °C, 1500 bar and 30 m ionic strength. This software can simulate reactions under different conditions based on reactant input, and stability diagrams show the boundaries of thermodynamic phase stability. As an extension to yield-optimizing applications, this project investigates OLI applicability towards the discovery of new quaternary solid-state compounds. For this project, the methodology has focused on alkali metal-rare earth silicates and zirconates [(Na,K)-(Y,La)-(Si,Zr)-O], with variable concentration and pH in the search for new phases. Experimental conditions include reactants of rare earth chlorides, sodium metasilicate, zirconyl chloride, and alkali metal hydroxide base, enclosed in Teflon-lined digestion vessels and heated at 200 °C for one week. After products are collected, washed, and centrifuged, they are examined by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Experiments performed using lanthanum or yttrium chloride and sodium metasilicate yielded no new or existing phases in the explored regions of phase space. The analogous procedures with zirconyl salt are currently under exploration.

Poster Number: 064

Privacy-Preserving Framework for Access Control and Interoperability of Electronic Health Records Using Blockchain Technology

Matea Milojkovic, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Gaby Dagher, Ph.D., Boise State University

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Despite an increased focus on the security of electronic health records and an effort by large cities around the globe to pursue smart city infrastructure, the private information of patients is subject to data breaches on a regular basis. Previous efforts to combat this have resulted in data being mostly inaccessible to patients. Existing record management systems struggle with balancing data privacy and the need for patients and providers to regularly interact with data. Blockchain technology is an emerging technology that enables data sharing in a decentralized and transactional fashion. Blockchain technology can be leveraged in the healthcare domain to achieve the delicate balance between privacy and accessibility of electronic health records. We propose a blockchain-based framework for secure, interoperable, and efficient access to medical records by patients, providers, and third parties, while preserving the privacy of patients' sensitive information. Our framework, named Ancile, utilizes smart contracts in an Ethereum-based blockchain for heightened access control and obfuscation of data, and employs advanced cryptography techniques for further security. The goals of this project are to analyze how Ancile would interact with the different needs of patients, providers, and third parties, and to understand how the framework could address longstanding privacy and security concerns in the healthcare industry.

Poster Number: 065

The Importance of Profanity

John Kroft, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jo Koster, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This paper examines some of the myths and connotations associated with taboo language, while stressing the benefits that this type of language has to offer. In particular, this paper examines the place of profanity in society, in the United States military, and the sociolinguistic milieu of the two. The thesis forwarded is that the corporate workforce could only benefit from the removal of the taboo and stigmas surrounding profanity. Some of the benefits that such language has to offer are an increase in pain tolerance, helping to form interpersonal and social bonds, and establishing a social hierarchy. Profanity, of course, has negative aspects, such as the following: women use profanity less frequently than men do and are thus not establishing their place in the social hierarchy the same way that men do; children learn profanity quickly at a young age, usually at home, but they are still punished for using such language, girls more so than boys; and there is a societal assumption that those who use profanity are less intelligent than those who do not. The legality and morality of profane language are examined, and determined that though there are military regulations and FCC guidelines prohibiting its use, there is no moral reason not to use taboo language when not broadcasting on mass media outlets.

Poster Number: 066

I will give you anything you like to ask for it”: Wilde’s Marxist Socialism in The Picture of Dorian Gray and The Importance of Being Earnest

John Kroft, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Leslie Bickford, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Through an intertextual Marxist reading of the play The Importance of Being Earnest and the novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, this paper demonstrates that both works serve as social commentary for the anxiety caused by capitalism following the Industrial Revolution in Victorian England. The length of the novel allows for a better developed depiction of the same commentary. Dorian Gray acts as an illustration of the anxiety felt by both ends of the socioeconomic strata. Crafted as a reversal of exemplary ideals, Lord Henry acts as capitalism incarnate in its purest sense: Henry wishes to buy Basil’s painting of Dorian, as he would any other product; Henry also objectifies Sibyl Vane as a consumer good, suggesting her value as an actress is diminished. Servants play a minimal role: in Earnest, Lane acts only as the set-up for an absurd reversal of class structure; in Dorian Gray, servants are mentioned, but rarely by name, painting the dehumanization that the bourgeoisie imposes on the proletariat. Representing the working class, Sibyl Vane is treated as a consumer good by Henry in his dialogue to Dorian, by Dorian himself after she performs badly on stage, and by her mother to ensure her future prosperity. In Dorian Gray, underclass women are objectified, while in Earnest, the upper-class women are ridiculously selective in choosing a suitor. It is through the repetition of displaying the oppressive nature of capitalism and the depiction of both ends of the socioeconomic spectrum that Wilde offers the oppressed demographics a voice in Victorian society.

Poster Number: 067

Blood Libel and Accusation: A Study of Anti-Semitic Rhetoric in Medieval Europe

Greg Lamb, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Gregory Bell, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Blood libel accusations were a series of evolving anti-Semitic ideas that held Jews would “sacrifice” or murder Christian children during their Purim or Passover festivities, further solidifying the idea of Jews as enemies of Christianity. Scholars have primarily focused on the effects of Jewish ritual murder accusations, also known as blood libel, but have failed to truly explore the rhetoric behind them. These accusations often changed with time; from simply being host profanation to outright child murder. This gruesome evolution seemingly coincided with the changing needs of the accusers themselves. Without knowing the motivations behind the accusations, it is difficult to accurately understand their effects on the Jewish community, or the wholesale social effects in Medieval Europe. The rhetoric used to spread the blood libel charges or to refute them provides a more complete understanding of what issues dominated the minds of Europeans during the Middle Ages. Examining medieval rhetoric regarding blood libel accusations shows they were given a religious façade to hide the fact that they were economically, socio-politically, or personally motivated. An analysis of documents such as papal bulls, royal decrees, clerical accounts of blood libel instances, and contemporary fictional media suggest that blood libel accusations were rarely, if ever, religiously motivated.

Poster Number: 068

NFL and BMI

Matthew Edwards, Winthrop University
Cassandra Rutherford, Winthrop University
Matthew Prater, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Duha Hamed, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Over the years, the position of quarterback in the National Football League has undergone various transformations. Of those transformations, the need for taller and heavier players has risen. As player stature has changed, so has the style of play in the NFL. This study is designed to determine if there is a correlation between quarterback body mass index (BMI) and total yards from scrimmage (TY). The study uses the stratified sampling method to look at the quarterback from each team who started the most games during the 2017-2018 football season. Data on age, height, weight, and game performance were collected from the NFL website. We hypothesize that quarterback BMI will have no correlation with total yards, but will have an affect on quarterback rushing yards. The study will also look to examine if age and family size may also have impact on game performance.

Poster Number: 069

Effects of Added Allophane on the Carbon and Nutrient Dynamics of Compost Generated from Food Waste

McKenzie Kargel, Winthrop University
Jaime Taylor, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Scott Werts, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

It is estimated that 40% of all waste that enters landfills is derived from food waste. This waste will ultimately end up as methane emissions from the landfill sites, contributing to greenhouse gasses. Food waste that is redirected and composted as an alternative to landfills often contains between 35-55% carbon, which can be returned to the soil as fertilizer. While some of this carbon will be broken down by soil fauna and returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, other portions will become more stable and remain in the soil for decades or longer. Allophane, a clay derived from volcanic ash, is known to stabilize soil carbon for much longer periods of time, as it creates organic-inorganic complexes that are more recalcitrant than traditional organic material. Our experiment investigated the affect of adding allophane to compost generated from food waste in order to determine whether the allophane would work to stablize the carbon in the short term following composting. We wish to determine the degree to which carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous will remain in the compost following the course of a growing season. We established five sets of pots containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% allophane combined with a 50/50 soil/compost mixture. We measured total organic carbon and nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate every two weeks throughout the growing season. Our experiment showed no consistent trends in total organic carbon or nitrogen through the experiment. More experimentation is needed in order to determine any significant trends in the loss or sequestration of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate.

Poster Number: 070

An Analysis of the Feasibility of Using Satellite Imagery to Examine Coral Health and Extent over Time

Jaime Taylor, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Bryan McFadden, M.S.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This study assessed the effectiveness of publicly available satellite imagery datasets for monitoring the health and extent of coral reefs over time. This study looked at changes in coral health and extent along the Great Barrier Reef. To evaluate the effectiveness of satellite data for determining changes in health of coral, the study utilized Landsat data from Landsat 4, 5, and 8, ranging from the early 1980s to current (2017). The study uses the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to analyze the photosynthetic zooxanthellae content of the coral, which is a good indicator of coral health. To analyze the value of Landsat data for mapping extent of coral, the study utilizes existing GIS (Geographic Information Systems) datasets from the Millennium Coral Reef Mapping project (1999-2002) as a baseline

Poster Number: 071

Prime Labeling Graphs and Hypergraphs

Alan Way, Winthrop University
Justin McCullough, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Arran Hamm, Ph.D

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Graph labeling problems date back to the beginning of Graph Theory itself (see the Four Color Theorem). Roughly 40 years ago, the notion of a prime labeling of a graph was introduced; a graph on n vertices has a prime labeling if its vertices can be labeled by the numbers 1, 2, … , n so that each edge spans a coprime pair (i.e., each edge’s labels have greatest common divisor one). In the 1980s, Entriger conjectured that a certain family of graphs all have prime labelings; our work furthered the progress on this conjecture by giving a prime labeling for several members of this family. Additionally, we studied graph parameters related to the coprime graph. The coprime graph on n vertices is the graph whose vertices are numbered 1, 2, … , n with i~j if and only if i and j are coprime. Using the graph parameters we calculated, we were able to conclude that several classes of graphs are not prime. We concluded our work by examining this notion generalized to hypergraphs (which allow “edges” to have size larger than two) and give a class of hypergraphs which are not prime.

Poster Number: 072

The Garcia Family and Their Effect on History

Ashley Reynolds, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Kristen Wunderlich, D.M.A.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Patricia Adkins Chiti is a very accomplished mezzo-soprano and musicologist. She put together a series of pieces composed by Manuel Garcia, Maria Malibran, and Pauline Viardot. This group of composers is unique for several reasons. In this presentation, I will go into detail about what makes them so unique, as well as why they are very important and pivotal figures in music history. Most singers who are classically trained have heard the name Manuel García. He was a famous voice teacher and vocal pedagogue who was one of the first to discover the science behind the voice as an instrument. In this presentation, however, I will talk more about the famous pedagogue's father, who was more of a composer and singer than his son was. Manuel Garcia Sr. was born in Seville, Spain. He would eventually become a well-known and very talented tenor, composer, and conductor. Garcia Sr. became the father of several musically talented children. Among them were Maria Malibran and Pauline Viardot. The compositions of the Garcia family were heavily influenced by the belcanto era. This was likely because of all three composers' involvement in the operas of Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti, who were the three main belcanto composers. The Garcia family moved quite frequently, and because of this, the children were fluent in several languages, including Spanish, French, and Italian. This particular topic for the presentation was picked because I am performing my senior recital in April with pieces from the Garcia composers. I will also have a belcanto set with one piece by each belcanto composer mentioned earlier. It is very interesting to see how the history of the composers and the music all tie together.

Poster Number: 073

Turn Stress into Sweat: The Effects of Physical Activity Classes on Stress in College Students

Kellie Cooper, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Janet Wojcik, Ph.D

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

While stress is unavoidable, many college students face overwhelming levels of stress and lack proper stress management skills. Increased levels of stress can lead to poor mental and physical health, as well as poor academic performance. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of physical activity classes on stress levels in college students. Four male students and forty-four female students (n = 51) over the age of 18 participated in this study. Surveys were distributed to participants in “for-credit” and recreational physical activity classes offered by Winthrop University. This study employed a modified version of the Physical Activity and Stress Survey (PASS). The survey was modified to include the short-version International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ) and questions asking participants to identify race/ethnicity, the class name, and whether it was for credit or recreational. Students in recreational classes reported higher levels of stress coming into the class compared to students in for-credit classes (M = 2.5 ± 0.7 versus 1.9 ± 0.9; p = 0.011). There was no difference in student stress levels upon leaving class or other variables. Students participating in recreational classes took a higher number of physical activity classes than students enrolled in for-credit classes. There were no differences by race. IPAQ data showed that students participated in 3.1 ± 1.6 days of physical activity per week. Students who participate in recreational physical activity classes may do so to manage stress. Students in for-credit classes may feel less stress upon arriving to class.

Poster Number: 074

Understanding Rest and Recovery Protocols for Power

Nick Chavis, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The purpose of this review of literature was to analyze current and relevant research involving rest and recovery protocols for power, specifically, shortened rest periods and the effects of supplemental aerobic training on power output. This was examined through comparing active and passive recovery protocols. Active recovery (AR) is generally considered low-intensity and low-volume exercise performed after training sessions or between training days as a means to speed up the recovery process. AR can be an umbrella term for several methods of recovery; however, for the purpose of this review, AR will be in reference to low-intensity aerobic training. Passive recovery (PR), also known as complete recovery, contrasts this method in that any kind of stressor is removed from the environment so that the body may undertake a more relaxed process. Both recovery protocols have been shown to be beneficial to power output. This comprehensive review examines published research to compare the effects of recovery to power output. Additional research suggest that power output can be sustained or even improved without massive amounts of rest, a notion that is not generally accepted. Together, these two concepts may have significant implications in the training of explosive athletes (e.g., football players, soccer players, and sprinters).

Poster Number: 075

Understanding the Psychological Benefits of Exercise

Malik Mattison, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the psychological benefits of exercise, specifically regarding depression and anxiety. This document evaluates multiple studies that introduce a correlation of different types of physical training and how they compare to psychological health. Depression and anxiety affect at least 300 million people worldwide in some way. There is evidence to support different types of exercise to affect, and improve, depression and anxiety. The findings suggest that group exercise shows a correlation to fewer depressive symptoms than with isolated exercise. Group exercise has been shown to give people a social outlet, which is where many people’s depressive symptoms come from. There is also evidence to suggest that higher intensity workouts have better benefits on depression and anxiety effects. Other variables taken into account include the ages and genders of individuals. The results of this review are important for finding more innovative ways of therapy for depression and depressive symptoms. Also, exercise programs for college students specifically could help deal with the stress that comes from the college lifestyle.

Poster Number: 076

Analyzing Anthropogenic Effects on Sandy Beaches and Meiofaunal Community Composition Using Metabarcoding

Douglas E. Johnson, Winthrop University
Jeremiah Daniel JonesBoggs, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Julian Smith III, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Marine meiofauna, comprising sub-millimeter representatives from most animal phyla, are ubiquitous in the marine benthos, ranging from the intertidal to the deep ocean. Continuing controversy exists over their relative importance in benthic ecosystem processes. Therefore, their importance to the essential ecosystem services provided by marine benthos remains open to question. Although recent research has shown that meiofauna can exert significant effects on sediment structure and stability, nutrient cycling, waste removal, and linkage of microbial production to higher trophic levels, whether or not these results are general is unknown. The question is important because the meiofauna are affected by the same anthropogenic stressors to which marine benthic communities are currently exposed. Therefore, in addition to hypothesis-testing, it is also important to have a baseline for comparison in order to detect future changes in marine meiofaunal communities. Broadly, we propose to establish community metabarcoding as technique at Winthrop University, to use that technique to determine alpha diversity of the meiofaunal communities from two sties differing in degree of anthropogenic stress, and to use a modified version of community metabarcoding to determine trophic connections in these meiofaunal communities.

Poster Number: 077

Review of ACL Injuries in Female Athletes

Maddison McLendon, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

There is evidence to suggest that female athletes have a higher occurrence of ACL injuries than male athletes. A better understanding of mechanisms behind ACL injuries in females is critical; thus, the purpose of this review was to identify potential factors that lead to higher ACL injury rates in female athletes. Evidence suggests that women have less knee flexion angles, more knee valgus angles, greater quadriceps activation, and lower hamstring activation compared to male athletes. The altered knee pattern with women puts more pressure or “increases the load” on the ACL function. Other evidence suggests that proprioceptive preventive strength training could help decrease the number of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional evidence suggests that the impact of varying hormone levels on knee joint laxity could also explain why female athletes sustain ACL injuries more often than male athletes. The information from this review can help coaches and players to better understand the causes of ACL injuries in female athletes, and potentially work towards effective injury-prevention strategies.

Poster Number: 078

Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy Treatment in Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Injuries

Joshua Pascal, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Sports medicine is a constantly evolving field that requires ongoing research. This research allows clinicians to have the most up-to-date medical information, which allows them to provide their patients with the best care possible. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to identify cupping therapy as an effective rehabilitation and recovery modality. Additionally, cupping therapy was compared to more traditional methods, such as electrical stimulation, whirlpools, and ultrasound for rehabilitation and recovery. Additional research examined the effect of cupping therapy in treating injuries to upper versus lower extremities. A better understanding of this relatively popular treatment protocol will assist trainers and athletes to select the most appropriate modality for individual athletes.

Poster Number: 079

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: What We Know

Mark Cavanaugh, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive disease that is found in the brain. CTE is extremely dangerous and can be life-threatening to athletes. It can cause cerebral lobe damage, depression/anxiety, headaches/migraines, and memory loss. Recently, studies have shown that CTE is most prevalent in high-contact sports, specifically football. CTE has been found in football at various age levels, including high school, college, and the NFL. Most CTE cases have been found in the NFL, due to the increased exposure to contact, especially at high-contact positions such as linebackers, running backs and wide receivers. Even after retirement, NFL players have reported suffering from the side effects of CTE. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence-based information on prevention strategies, signs and symptoms, and long-term effects of CTE. A better understanding of CTE among coaches, trainers, and athletes can progress the development of prevention and treatment.

Poster Number: 080

Understanding the Research on Low Vision Rehabilitation

Maggie Odom, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The purpose of this literature review is to provide information on the importance of low vision rehabilitation and how it effects quality of life. Low vision rehabilitation is the improvement of vision and/or low vision. Low vision rehabilitation helps individuals adapt by restoring a patient’s current vision, while maintaining comfort. There is evidence that emphasizes the importance of low vision rehabilitation in developing countries. The relationship between low vision rehabilitation and mental health suggests that low vision rehabilitation can prevent mental issues related to ocular injuries. Also, research explains the significance of low vision rehabilitation following an ocular injury. Although ocular injuries’ occurrence is about 1% and they are mostly caused by excessive force, it is safe to assume that this low percentage can be prevented. Furthermore, immediate rehabilitation can increase patients’ quality of life. Additional findings suggest that irreversible ocular injuries are not life ending. All of the findings imply that eye injuries and problems do not have to lead to permanent visual handicaps. Studies propose that low vision rehabilitation can be extremely helpful; however, more research is required to amplify the value of low vision rehabilitation. This review is important to bring information to an understudied topic.

Poster Number: 081

Understanding Servant Leadership as a Model for High School Sport Coaching

William Manning, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

From its conception in 1977, servant leadership has been demonstrated to be an effective model for organizing and uniting people behind team-oriented tasks. The servant leadership model differs from more traditional, top-down models in that, while top-down leadership emphasizes strict obedience and autocratic control of subjects, servant leadership emphasizes group involvement and ethical inclusion to develop trust and create a satisfying experience for workers. Originally designed for corporate use, researchers began investigating its merit in sports in 2008. Significant studies investigated the model’s effect on athlete satisfaction, coaching efficacy, and performance. The purpose of this review of literature was to examine servant leadership as a practical and effective leadership model for high school sport. This involved investigating the data that have been compiled regarding high schoolers’ leadership preferences, as well as how those preferences apply to servant leadership ideals. Articles were individually selected and summarized according to relevance to servant leadership and support for the topic of leadership in high school sport. After review, the results from the selected articles demonstrated that the behaviors and dynamics displayed in many of these studies were congruent with the current servant leadership model. Future research could test the congruency of related models with servant leadership, as well as the validity and success of implementation methods when utilized by more traditional coaches.

Poster Number: 082

Exercise Programming for Pediatric Cancer Patients

Elizabeth Caroline Skaggs, Winthrop Unviersity

Faculty Mentor: Janet Wojcik, Ph.D

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Pediatric cancer occurs at a rate of 17 per 100,000 children, from infancy to adolescence. The most common pediatric cancers are acute lymphoblastic leukemia, nervous system and brain tumors, and Hodgkin lymphoma. These children go through a great deal to continue their lives as they were before they were diagnosed, so keeping a regular exercise and play schedule is crucial for them. Physical activity at least 60 minutes per day is recommended for youths by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trained exercise physiologists and occupational therapists can lead exercise to benefit physical and mental health. Although research is limited, studies have found exercise in pediatric cancer generally to be safe. If youths cannot perform 60 minutes at one time, they should exercise in short bouts of 10 minutes and gradually increase duration. Their symptoms and fatigue will limit them, and they may need to avoid exercise on most chemotherapy days, except for light stretching. They can participate in walking or cycling, play games, dance, and use cardio equipment. They will require much slower progression in their intensity or duration of exercise. Resistance training can occur 2-3 days per week and focus on muscular endurance with higher repetitions, using light hand weights, resistance bands or tubing, and body weight. Flexibility training can be done daily to help increase range of motion and avoid stiffness from inactivity. Although youths can benefit from exercise training during cancer, more studies are needed across different age groups and types of cancers.

Poster Number: 083

The Effect of Term Limits on Margin of Victory in Elections

Jesse Morton, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Hye- Sung Kim, Ph.D

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This study examines the factors of electoral victory. In particular, it empirically tests whether having term limits on an executive’s time in office affects the margin of election victory by a candidate by using a panel data analysis on a dataset consisting of all countries for the time period between 1975 and 2015. The dependent variable measures the number of votes received in an election victory and the main independent variable measures whether or not a country has formal restraints on an executive’s term in office. This study finds that, on average, the winner of an election in a country with formal restraints on an executive’s term in office will receive 11.08 percent more votes than an election winner in a country without formal restraints on an executive’s term in office. This result was statistically significant, and appears to be robust to various specifications with a number of potential confounders. The findings of the study may imply that, in countries with term limits, elections may be much less competitive than in countries with no term limits; thus, challengers to incumbents may wish to consider this new information to reevaluate their prospective chances of victory before declaring their candidacy in elections.

Poster Number: 084

The Continuing International Relations and Foreign Policy Implications Resulting from the Spanish American War

Jesse Morton, Winthrop University

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

December 10, 1898, was a highly significant day in world history. The date marks the signing of the Treaty of Paris, an agreement between Spain and The United States of America that ended The Spanish American War. A number of important territories exchanged hands at the end of the war as a result of the agreements reached in the Treaty of Paris, including Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines. With the Spanish American War resulting in such a large shakeup of world power, the following question might be asked: Are the results of the Spanish American War still affecting international relations today, and what effect does this have on United States foreign policy? In this paper, I argue that the provisions of the Treaty of Paris are still very much at play in international relations today and I demonstrate how aspects of United States foreign policy are still focused on the territories involved.

Poster Number: 085

A Comparison of the Pronunciation of the Phonemes B and D by a Native Spanish Speaker and a Beginner-Level Spanish Speaker

Jesse Morton, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Valerie Jepson, Ph.D

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the difference in linguistic characteristics between the pronunciation of a native speaker of Spanish and someone who has no experience with the language. Particularly, I focused on the phonemes B and D. I chose these two phonemes because, in Spanish, there are two ways B and D can be pronounced depending on the preceding sound in the word, and this will add to my analysis. You can have a B or D that is categorized as Occlusive or a B or D categorized as Approximate. My research question was: How will the pronunciation of the phonemes B and D change between a native speaker of the language and someone who has never learned Spanish at all? My hypothesis was that there would be a clear and measurable difference in the sounds produced when a native speaker used those phonemes as compared with a beginner. To measure this difference, I used a computer program called Praat to analyze the shapes and lengths of the sounds produced by the different speakers. My findings were that the shapes and lengths of the sounds change significantly between the two speakers.

Poster Number: 086

The Struggle for Resilience: The Correlation Between Childhood Experiences and Coping in College Students

Devonne vanHerwynen, Winthrop University
Maddison Jones, Winthrop University
Mattie Delusa, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Tara J. Collins, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The current study seeks to understand the relationship coping skills and resilience in children based on whether or not they experienced parental relationship strain, and whether the coping behavior continues on into college years. We hypothesized that individuals who had experienced parental relationship strain would establish strong coping mechanisms in response to that stressor and would become more resilient to later life stressors. Data were collected through a convenience sample of students from Winthrop University that included 12 men and 72 women. Their ages ranged from 18 to 25, and 59.52% of participants’ parents were still married. Through an online survey, we assessed the different ways in which people cope with stress, perceived stress in one’s life, interparental conflict, and resilience factors. Based on our results, it can be said that parental conflict affects childhood experiences and coping behavior, but only in certain ways. For example, it can be concluded that children who experience less resolution in parental arguments may learn better to cope with and accept situations out of their control.

Poster Number: 087

Willingness to Forgive Varying Degrees of Betrayal Committed by a Friend or Romantic Partner

Emma C. Harris, Winthrop University
Emma C. Harris, Winthrop University
Ephiphany J. Holmes, Winthrop University
Samuel D. Clarkson, Winthrop University
Ashley B. Garris, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Tara J. Collins, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Interpersonal forgiveness has been found to be directly correlated with a person’s desire to continue a relationship. The goal of this study was to examine any differences in forgiving friends and romantic partners of different betrayals. We hypothesized that people would be more willing and motivated to forgive a romantic partner over a friend and that people would have a harder time forgiving someone for a higher level of betrayal versus a lower level of betrayal. We had 114 college students complete an online questionnaire that contained two scenarios that were randomly assigned to be about a friend or romantic partner. Participants answered questions about each scenario that measured their willingness and motivations to forgive. Next, they answered questions that measured for their likelihood to forgive, which was used as a covariate in our analysis. We found a marginally significant difference with participants being more willing to forgive a friend than a significant other. There was also a significant difference with participants being more extrinsically motivated to forgive a friend than a significant other and a significant difference in participants being more willing to forgive for a low betrayal versus a high betrayal. These findings suggest that individuals are more extrinsically motivated within a high betrayal scenario and more willing in a low betrayal scenario to forgive a friend over a significant other. In future research, older individuals need to be included who have been in relationships, both romantic and platonic, for a longer amount of time.

Poster Number: 088

Mental Health Among College Students: The Correlational Effect on Campus Involvement

Anna Roseman, Winthrop University
Shanae' Wright, Winthrop University
Aleighsha Major, Winthrop University
Katherine Poulnot, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Tara J. Collins, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Mental illness is perceived to be one of the most prevalent of illnesses among college students. We examined the relationships between public stigma, self-stigma, mental health (depression and anxiety), and campus involvement. We hypothesized that students who were more involved in campus events (athletic involvement, arts, Greek life, etc.) would have better mental health in terms of being less stressed and less prone to depression and anxiety. One hundred and twenty-one participants completed our online survey. The majority of these participants were enrolled in a southern university and recruited through general courses, some of which offered course credit for participation. Data were collected through a convenience sample, measuring perceptions of public stigma related to seeking a form of mental health treatment, self-stigma related to utilizing counseling services, school-related depression and anxiety, involvement on campus, and concluding with a symptom checklist for depression. We conducted five multiple-regression analyses to predict mental health and perceptions of mental health based on campus involvement. While campus involvement did not predict self-stigma of mental health, anxiety, or depression, it did have marginal significance on perceived public stigma of individuals with mental health related issues. From these results we can conclude campus involvement cannot predict the mental health status of college students.

Poster Number: 089

Factors Predicting Young Adults' Support of the Black Lives Matter Movement

Lashana Delduarte, Winthrop University
Madison DeMott, Winthrop University
Keva Jones, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The communicative power of social media has led to an increase of young adults’ participation in social movements such as Black Lives Matter (BLM). We examined factors that predicted adults’ willingness to support BLM and other social movements. Participants were 82 young adults with a mean age of 20.5 (SD = 1.56). Fifty eight percent were Caucasian, 24% were African American, and the remainder reported other minority ethnicities. We assessed adherence to BLM ideology, along with active participation with and social media support for the BLM movement. Then, participants responded to items assessing tendencies for entitlement and impression management. Immediately afterward we provided the entitlement scale again but asked participants to answer as if they were a member of a “different race than their own.” We found that support of BLM was highest among those with liberal beliefs and African American people. Race and political beliefs emerged as more influential variables than gender and religious beliefs. Individuals who supported BLM did not show a high sense of entitlement; however, they perceived entitlement in racial groups other than their own. This result might indicate that support for minority movements is partially a belief in and resistance to entitled social groups. People did not seem to support BLM as an impression management strategy, but those who supported BLM also indicated that they are willing to support almost any social movement, suggesting a generalized dissatisfaction with the status quo.

Poster Number: 090

Self-Perceptions of Adults with and without the Diagnosis of ADHD/ADD

Halee Carver, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attention deficit disorder (ADD) have been widely studied. Previous research on ADHD/ADD focused primarily on diagnosed children’s self-perceptions, whereas little has examined diagnosed adults’ self-perceptions. Thus, our study compared the academic self-perceptions of young adults currently diagnosed or never diagnosed with ADHD/ADD. Participants were 82 young adults with a mean age of 21.07 (SD = 1.79). Half of the participants had a diagnosis of ADHD/ADD, and half had never been diagnosed. Participants responded to scales that examined their attitudes toward and knowledge about ADHD/ADD, we well as their academic and social experiences. Results revealed that the young adults in our study held very similar perceptions and attitudes about ADD/ADHD. There was a slight tendency for Caucasians and women to more strongly perceive it as a true disorder. Diagnosed individuals felt that they struggled more academically than their non-diagnosed peers did, which matches data collected from diagnosed children. However, we found college GPA did not support this perception, whereas, in children, performance was lower for diagnosed individuals. This dichotomy suggests that by the time diagnosed individuals reach adulthood, they may have better strategies to overcome academic challenges presented by their disorder. This study supplements what is known about ADD/ADHD by providing needed insight into how this commonly diagnosed disorder impacts the adult population.

Poster Number: 091

Attitudes Toward Police Resistant to Change and Predicted by Race and Experience

Morgan Bailey, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Our study manipulated a presentation of information about police officers to investigate if the delivery method impacted attitude change. We hypothesized that a factual presentation would result in greater attitude change than an emotional presentation. We also hypothesized, in line with previous research, that personal experiences with police would predict attitudes toward them. Participants were 32 men, 55 women, and 1 transgender adult, with a mean age of 21.25 (SD = 2.17). First, we used published scales to assess attitudes toward and experiences with police officers. We also created a knowledge survey using federal and national government websites. Next, participants were randomly assigned to read identical information about the salary and job experiences of police officers presented in either an emotional narrative or a (same-length) factual report. We did a manipulation check to verify that participants read, and then had them respond to the same questions about their attitudes toward police officers, allowing us to create a change score. Our first hypothesis was not supported. As previous research argued, there was no attitude change regardless of information presentation format. In other words, attitudes toward the police were stable, even in the face of new information. Adults who encountered the emotional version of the information expressed greater resistance to changing their attitude, perhaps seeing the emotional nature of the narrative as manipulative. Race, politics, religion, personal experience, and SES predicted attitudes about police, while gender and knowledge were less influential. These findings help us further understand the complexity of police-citizen interactions and the associated public perceptions.

Poster Number: 092

Young Adults’ College Experiences, Work Experiences, and Career Expectations

Kasey Knight, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This study focused on past work experience, college experience, career expectations, and stress. Participants were 93 college students, with a mean age of 19.88 (SD = 1.61). Participants completed a 66-question survey that measured job experience, college involvement, knowledge of psychology careers, job satisfaction, and stress. Results revealed that the more involved students were in college, the higher their overall stress level, r(93) = 0.21, p = 0.04, the higher their GPA, r(91) = 0.28, p = 0.008, and the older their age, r(93) = 0.33, p = 0.001. The average score for the knowledge test was 5.1 (SD = 1.16) on a 7-point scale. Compared to men, women were more likely to report that they would be self-employed or running their own business. Men were more likely to say they would work for an employer. People who knew what they would be doing in the future had higher GPAs, t(89) = 3.86, p < 0.001. We examined the occupations participants would pursue with and without constraints. In general, the no-constraint occupations were more likely to be unattainable for this age group, such as becoming an astronaut, or unrealistic, such as being a bartender in Las Vegas. These findings suggest that college students do not have clear and consistent expectations for their future, regardless of their work and college experiences.

Poster Number: 093

The Varied Relationships between Personality and Different Aspects of Social Media Use

Tiffany Oliver, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Hayes, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Previous research on the relationship between personality traits and social media use generally treat social media as a single entity, ignoring the diverse functions offered by these sites which may vary in their appeal to different personality types. For example, Amichai-Hamburger and Ben-Artzi (2002) found that people with high levels of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness were positively related with using instant messages and social media networking. However, they also found that interactions through online applications such as chat rooms differ from in-person interactions due to the lack of physical appearance and proximity. This suggests that personality may impact use of specific features of social media; for example, introverted people may use chat features to assuage their actual anxiety. However, they neglected other functions of social media – such as more public posting, photo sharing, and group messaging, – which may exhibit different relationships with personality factors. Extending previous work, the present study looked at a specific type of social media (Facebook) and examined the relationship between three separate aspects of Facebook use (attitudes, functions, and sociability) and Big 5 personality traits. We hypothesized that people with high level of extraversion and neuroticism would have more positive attitudes toward Facebook, visit it more frequently and use more of its features. The present study demonstrated that people’s attitudes towards Facebook, which features they use, and how frequently they use Facebook differentially relate to personality traits, suggesting that different aspects of social media may attract different personality traits.

Poster Number: 094

Young Adults’ Sexual Self-Categorization, Sexual Esteem, and Self-Disclosure

Ashley J. Becker, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Individuals can choose their own sexual identities and labels; however, most people will limit themselves to those most commonly accepted. We examined how label selection related to sexual self-esteem, -disclosure, and -acceptance. We hypothesized that more people would identify with traditional sexual labels than emerging categories, and that those who did not would self-disclose (including offering more explanations) at a higher level. Participants were 81 young adults, with a mean age of 21.39 (SD = 3.33); 65% were Caucasian, while 35% reported other ethnicities. One quarter of our sample identified as non-heterosexual. Participants responded to scales that assessed sexual self-esteem, sexual self-disclosure, and sexual self-acceptance. We also asked participants to identify their own sexual labels and then to indicate how closely they aligned with different sexual orientation categories. Our hypotheses were supported. We found that today’s young adults prefer traditional labels, perhaps reflecting adherence to societal norms or a lack of knowledge regarding the emergence of newer sexual identities. Young adults who selected non-traditional alternatives provided more lengthy explanations, justification, and self-disclosure. This greater self-disclosure might be explained as an attempt to avoid being misunderstood by others (as argued by previous researchers) or as comfort with one’s own identity. The latter argument is supported by the fact that participants who self-disclosed at a higher level also reported more confidence in their sexual behavior. These findings add to our limited, but growing, understanding of individuals who choose to identify with non-traditional sexualities.

Poster Number: 095

Young Adults’ Perceptions of Interracial, Interpolitical, and Interreligious Romantic Relationships

Caitlan Boudreaux, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Although much is known about interracial relationships, research on other relationship pairings is limited. Thus, we examined adults’ perceptions of interracial, interreligious, and interpolitical relationships. We hypothesized that interreligious relationships would be viewed less favorably than interpolitical and interracial. Participants were 100 young adults with a mean age of 20.42 (SD = 3.71). Sixty percent were Caucasian, 30% were African American, and the remainder reported other ethnicities. Participants responded to a scale that assessed attitudes toward interracial romantic relationships. Participants then responded to the same scale; however, “interracial” was replaced with “interreligious,” where interreligious was defined as two people of different religious belief systems. We then took the same questions and used the term “interpolitical,” defining it as two people with different political belief systems. Participants also ranked how important race, politics, and religion were when choosing a romantic partner. Results revealed that race, gender, GPA, and SES were not highly influential in predicting young adults’ attitudes toward different types of relationship; however, political ideology and religious beliefs were. Young adults had generally positive attitudes toward all of the relationships; they were least negative toward interracial and most concerned about interreligious pairings. These young adults felt that their parents would agree with their stance on religious similarities but would be less accepting of interracial relationships than their generation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the experiences of different societal groups and provide one of the first insights into perceptions of interreligious and interpolitical romantic relationships.

Poster Number: 096

Cross-Sex Friendship Quality Predicted by Family Dynamics and Self-Esteem

Rachelle Gandy, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Cross-sex friendships are very common in young adulthood; yet this type of relationship might be one of the most understudied. One unexamined area is how young adults’ parental relationships influence cross-sex friendships. Thus, we examined how young adults’ relationships to their fathers relate to their cross-sex friendships and associated jealousy levels. We hypothesized that a better adult-father relationship would predict closeness with cross-sex friends and less jealousy. Participants were 103 young adults with a mean age of 23.94 (SD = 7.83); 64% were Caucasian, 15% were African American, and the remainder reported other ethnicities. Participants responded to online scales that assessed relationships with their fathers, depth and intimacy of their cross-sex friendships, tendencies for jealousy and self-esteem. Our results did not support our hypotheses. The quality of the relationships with their fathers predicted adult daughters’ flirtatiousness with their cross-sex friends but did not predict the overall relationship quality or jealousy levels. Perhaps close, emotional connections with their fathers allowed these women to feel more comfortable teasing the opposite sex in a fun, non-sexual manner. In contrast, we found some initial evidence that the quality of father-son relationships might facilitate cross-sex friendship quality. Women raised with sisters reported less connection to their cross-sex friends; maybe these women developed a greater appreciation for female friendships (versus cross-sex friendships) because of their experiences with their female siblings. These findings enhance our understanding of this common aspect of young adults’ lives by demonstrating that family dynamics influence adults’ cross-sex friendships.

Poster Number: 097

Quality of Father Relationship Predicts Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Quality

Christiana Parker, Winthrop University
Samantha Myers, Winthrop University
Rachelle Gandy, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Girls’ interactions with fathers during their formative years may be important predictors of their later intimate interactions with men. To explore this idea, we assessed young adults’ relationships with both parents, as well as their romantic relationship quality. We hypothesized that adults who had higher quality relationships with their parents would have higher quality romantic relationships; and based on previous research, we anticipated that father relationships would be even more influential than mother relationships. Participants were 98 young adults with a mean age of 20 (SD = 3.9); 54% were Caucasian, 31% were African American, and the remainder reported other ethnicities. Half of the participants were from married households and half from households where the parents were no longer together. Participants responded to scales that assessed parent-child relationships, intimacy in romantic relationships, attitudes toward cohabitation, and self-esteem. The results partially supported our hypotheses; the relationship with both parents predicted young adults’ self-esteem; however only father relationship predicted the quality of young adults’ romantic relationships and positive attitudes toward marriage over cohabitation. Having married parents also predicted many positive outcomes. Perhaps the parents’ marriage provided stability during the young adults’ early development or a healthy example for young adults to later mirror. Age, SES, race, and gender were not as influential in determining romantic relationship quality. These findings suggest that early relationships can have a powerful impact on later relationships. They also support the notion that fathers serve a critical role in the family structure for both sons and daughters.

Poster Number: 098

Relationships among Personality, Mental Health Symptoms, and Social Support

Quviah D. Streater, Winthrop University
Rachel A. McLaughlin, Winthrop University
Ta'Niss J. Robinson, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Sarah Reiland, Ph.D.

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Social support is often considered to be a protective factor that is associated with fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms, but studies rarely examine factors that may predict self-reported levels of social support. It is possible that personality (neuroticism) and self-esteem affect perceptions of support, and it is also possible that mental health symptoms that are associated with avoidance and social withdrawal could contribute to perceptions of low support in individuals with greater depression and PTSD symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine what factors are connected to perceived and received social support in college students. At a southeastern university, 136 students completed surveys assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, self-esteem, and personality factors such as neuroticism. Results showed that social support had positive relationships with self-esteem, optimism, and neuroticism and a negative relationship with PTSD, thus supporting the hypothesis. Although social support may be protective, it is also possible that mental health symptoms and personality play a large role in perception of support. For treatment of those who have mental health symptoms, increasing perception of support could be just as important as increasing received support. Longitudinal studies are needed to further explore factors that predict perceptions of social support.

Poster Number: 099

Relationships among Social Support, Help Seeking, and Mental Health Symptoms

Jayma L. Goodwin, Winthrop University
Lauren E. Czarnecki, Winthrop University
Stephanie Copeland, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Sarah Reiland, Ph.D.

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Social support can be measured according to whether people believe they have support available if they need it (i.e., perceived support), or it can be measured by supportive behaviors people report receiving in a certain time period (i.e., received support). Perceived support has been consistently linked to better health and fewer depression and PTSD symptoms. Additionally, people who are more willing to seek help show fewer symptoms of PTSD and depression, and also report higher perceived support. This study’s aim was to determine if PTSD and depression symptoms are inversely related to willingness to seek help and perceived social support in college students. Further, this study aimed to see which sources of social support are most important for college students. The sample for this study was comprised of 136 college students, 120 women and 16 men. The participants completed an online survey comprised of multiple assessments. Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between received support and PTSD or depression symptoms. People with greater symptoms of both PTSD and depression reported less willingness to seek help and lower levels of perceived support. Our results also showed that higher levels of symptoms were positively correlated with perceived support from significant others, whereas higher symptoms were negatively correlated with perceived support from family and friends. This study shows that enhancing perceived social support for individuals with PTSD and depression symptoms, particularly support from family and friends, could help with treatment.

Poster Number: 100

Young Adults’ Gender Role Beliefs, Sexual Esteem and Need to Belong

Zelphair Grant, Winthrop University
Kelli Murray, Winthrop University
Imani Washington, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

We examined gender role perceptions, sexual esteem, and need to belong. Participants were 85 adults with a mean age of 19.0 (SD = 2.1); 52% were Caucasian and 35% were African-American. Participants responded to measures that assessed their gender role beliefs, gender role attitudes, sexual esteem and depression, and need to belong. We also asked participants to rate a list of sexual behaviors for appropriateness. Each behavior was described as being conducted by a man, and then the behavior was described as if the actor were a woman. We found that having non-traditional gender beliefs did not lead to adults being more sexually satisfied. Perhaps adults’ happiness could be better predicted by how well their beliefs match their partners’ beliefs; two people who share the same expectations should experience more sexual compatibility and thus satisfaction. Results also revealed that non-traditional views might relate to unhealthy sexual behaviors, such as sexual preoccupation and acceptance of sexual disrespect. The need to belong was reported by non-heterosexual individuals and those experiencing sexual depression. Non-heterosexual individuals may be experiencing a need to belong because of their minority social status; these adults may feel isolated and desire connection with others at any cost, including disrespect. Feeling isolated may be a contributing factor to the reported levels of sexual depression. Heterosexual individuals, Caucasians, and men expressed more traditional gender beliefs. These groups have all benefited in some way from traditional viewpoints, which may explain their preference for traditional thinking in the context of gender roles.

Poster Number: 101

Mental Health, Mental Illness, and Stigma Among Undergraduate College Students

Molly Boyle, Winthrop University

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This research study focuses on mental health, mental illness, and stigma and how they are experienced by college students. This research is important because undergraduate college students face many challenges, and their mental health often goes by the wayside. The goal of this research is to learn more about the mental health needs of undergraduate college students. This and related research have the potential to improve mental health resources and treatment and diminish stigma associated with mental illness. Participants in this quantitative study responded to questions and prompts via an online survey. Findings related to the participants’ experiences of mental health, mental illness, and stigma are discussed.

Poster Number: 102

Grief Perceptions and Education Analysis

Shelby Anderson, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Cynthia Forrest, Ph.D.

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Grief is one of the most universal experiences we share. Yet, it is often misunderstood and even avoided. For many helping professionals, having knowledge and skills to help those who are grieving is critical. Even though grief is prevalent in our lives, previous studies suggest that there is a lack of grief education within predominant helping professions. These studies also emphasize the need for core curriculum in these fields to incorporate grief and loss education. This study examines the educational preparation for grief management in core curriculum courses for undergraduate social work, exercise science, and health care management majors. Specifically, this study compares students’ definitions of grief, their exposure to content on grief in their major core curriculum, and their perceptions of the importance of having a knowledge base of understanding in their professional roles. This study will also offer considerations to faculty for inclusion of grief content in social work, exercise science, and healthcare management programs.

Poster Number: 103

Self-Care Practice and Academic Success Among College Students

Tucker Chandler, Winthrop University

Richardson Ball Room (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

This study explored college students’ self-care practices, self-care perceptions, and academic success perceptions. Research suggests that self-care activities can be helpful in alleviating school-related stress. Researchers were interested in learning if there are correlations between self-care practices, self-care perceptions, and academic success. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students from Winthrop University participated in a survey measuring their recent self-care activities, self-care perceptions, and academic success perceptions. Results showed that, although college students in this sample value self-care and believe engaging in self-care is helpful in alleviating school-related stress, they do not regularly engage in self-care practice. Further research is needed in the area of self care and academic success, as well as promotion of self-care practices among college students.

Poster Number: 104

Aging Out and Out of Reach: Foster Care Alumni Who Elected Not to Go to College

Sarah Bechtold, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jessica Yang, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Young people who age out of foster care are at a complete disadvantage compared to their peers who were not involved in foster care when it comes to entering higher education. To many, this may come as a contradiction, because it may be erroneously assumed that the foster-care system provides top-quality care; however, the care many children receive is lacking in many areas, including preparation for higher education. Foster-care alumni often never make it to college, as barriers such as lack of funding, lack of support, and insufficient information about higher education block their paths. This study seeks to explore the barriers to entering higher education for foster-care alumni who never made it to college. This study uses a purposive sampling design, recruiting emancipated youth aged 18-25 from four states in the Southeast to share their responses to a student-designed survey about higher education preparation. While data collection is ongoing, it is hypothesized that foster-care alumni will report that opportunities to pursue higher education were limited, because information and resources appeared limited from their perspectives. Findings from this study may illuminate ways that agencies can make resources available to promote higher education for foster-care alumni and combat toxic stereotypes and misconceptions about this population.

Poster Number: 105

Police Brutality, Riots, and Public Opinion: Then versus Now

Joey Jennings, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Maria Aysa-Lastra, Ph.D.

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

On March 3, 1991, Rodney King was brutally beaten by law enforcement in Los Angeles, California. On April 29, 1992, those four police officers were acquitted of their charges despite being caught on video camera. This sparked an outbreak of riots fighting for the equal treatment of African Americans. Thirty years later, we are witnessing similar events but in higher frequency. The LA riots as well as recent demonstrations and the emergence of social movements claiming equal treatment under the law are framed by tensions in racial relations in the so-called post-racial America. This paper compares data on the state of race relations and its association to public opinions on excessive use of force. This paper centers on the excessive use of force by authority figures in the United States, or what has been popularly coined “police brutality.” The issue of police brutality has received more and more attention with the rise of social media and the emergence of social movements. Rodney King, Trayvon Martin, Philando Castil, Alton Sterling, Gregory Gunn, Freddie Gray and Michael Brown are names of African Americans who were brutally beaten and killed by law enforcement officers. In response to this misuse of power, social movements have emerged. “Black Lives Matter,” to name one prominent group, has gathered large support from a diverse group of people who advocate for equal rights of blacks in America. Reactions to racial expressions of unfair treatment, coupled with increasing militarization of police as well as the increased surveillance in urban areas, have enhanced frequent use of excessive force, particularly against minorities. Methods: This research comparse data from the ABC News/Washington Post Poll collected in April of 1992 on race relations during the time of the Rodney King riots to more recent data from the General Social Survey (GSS) and readers’ opinions about police brutality events in major newspapers. There are a lot of conflicting views on this topic with heavy media involvement as well as society only getting information from selective sources. However, this paper aims at providing evidence of the deterioration of race relations in America, racialized patterns in the use of excessive force, and its depiction in the media.

Poster Number: 106

Writing a Script for a Play about Emperor Nero

David Frazier, Winthrop University

Richardson Ballroom (DIGS)

2:15 PM - 4:15 PM

The goal of this project is to create a biographical play about the Roman Emperor Nero with the intention of immersing myself in the process of script writing. Nero was selected as the protagonist for this play because of his legacy of persecuting Christians, his notoriety for killing his mother and first wife, his theatrical personality, and his popularity among Rome’s lower classes. My goal as the playwright is to balance Nero’s negative and positive qualities by showing his humanity, but also to shock the audience with his heinous behavior. After the play is complete, actors will be cast to read the script during a workshop.

Poster Number: 107

Voting Rights, the Klan, and Race in Stella by Starlight

Asia Conyers, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Margaret Gillikin, Ph.D.

West 214

2:15 PM - 4:45 PM

This study examines interdisciplinary teaching, which provides students the opportunity to work with and apply knowledge from multiple disciplines organized around an overall theme or problem. The purpose of this research is to explore ways to integrate two subjects effectively for an interdisciplinary lesson. Teaching interdisciplinary lessons helps encourage students to go beyond the typical restrictions of just one content area, and it helps them to become more creative, focus on critical thinking, and work on communication skills. My research will include teacher-written blogs, scholarly articles, and interviews with several middle school educators about the impact of interdisciplinary teaching in their classrooms. In addition, my project will include a unit plan integrating the subjects of social studies and language arts to teach the novel Stella by Starlight by Sharon Draper, which takes place during the 1930s. The student-oriented lessons will emphasize reading comprehension and allow the students to apply the book’s concepts to their daily lives. For social studies, the students will explore topics such as voter disenfranchisement, the Ku Klux Klan, the Great Depression, and segregation, by using primary and secondary sources. The skills the students will gain from language arts will be interpreting and analyzing the author’s use of words, phrases and conventions; articulating ideas and perspectives in a logical sequence; using evidence to build arguments; and transacting with texts to formulate questions and explanations and to consider alternative/multiple perspectives.