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Friday, April 24th

Poster Number: 001

The Impacts of Financial Compensation of Student-Athletes in NCAA Division I Men's Basketball on the Labor Market


Gabriel Boscardin Dias, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Louis Pantuosco, Ph.D.

The purpose of this study is to identify the impacts that financial compensation of men’s basketball student-athletes in the NCAA Division I will have on the market of collegiate athletics. As the NCAA is facing issues involving governmental pressure to allow student-athletes to receive monetary compensation for the use of their names, images, and likenesses (NLI), the consequences will inevitably impact the entire sports industry. The main pressure the Association is facing now involves the compensation of men’s basketball student-athletes, as they are part of the sport that brings the largest amount of revenue via sponsors and television contracts. This study is seeking to predict how the changes in the intercollegiate athletic model currently under consideration will affect student-athletes, the professional and amateur competitiveness of basketball, and the sports industry. The study will be based on data collected by trustworthy basketball entities, including the NCAA, NBA, and FIBA, as well as official statements announced by the Association.

Poster Number: 002

Should College Athletes be Paid? Examining the Perception of Sports Fans

Thomas Glenn, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

Recently, there has been a worldwide conversation focused on the question of whether college athletes should be paid. Everyone has their different perspectives—including professional athletes, former college athlete superstars, the media, and others—and it is interesting to see various reasons behind why people are for or against this issue. One of the biggest points of discussion is the California bill and whether it should be passed or defeated. A New York state senator proposed a bill that would give college athletes the ability to sell the rights to their own names and likenesses. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine and conduct group comparison on the issue of whether college athletes should be paid. Participants were categorized into fans versus non-fans, and college athletes versus non-athletes. A survey was utilized to collect data from these participants. 71.13% of respondents believe that college athletes should be paid, while 28.87% believe that they should not be paid.

Poster Number: 003

Stress in College Students and How Athletics Play a Role

Taylor Brown, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Janet Wojcik, Ph.D.

Stress affects individuals often, and it may become a part of their everyday lives. Too much stress can be detrimental to the body, causing an individual’s immune system to weaken, possibly triggering depression, anxiety, and high blood pressure. College students undergo daily stressors in both their school work and their social lives. Adults go through different kinds of stress, such as paying bills. The purpose of this review is to evaluate mind and body stress by determining the differences in coping behaviors between college student-athletes and non-athletes, in addition to their cortisol levels and symptoms of psychopathology. The studies used in this review of literature examine multiple ways to cope with stress across different genders within the college setting. The methods in these studies used a collection of saliva samples, multiple questionnaires to assess stress levels and coping behaviors, in addition to 90-minute sessions on cognitive behavioral skills and relaxation responses. Overall, the results showed an increase in cortisol levels 30 minutes after waking up. For coping methods, many individuals use listening to music, exercising, and even meditation to relieve some of this stress. Finding what calms individuals will help decrease stress, and for many athletes, that is exercising, while non-student athletes would rather listen to music. For further research, considering different types of environments such as warmer versus colder states and higher versus lower economic status would help determine different stressors.

Poster Number: 004

Student-Athlete Stigmatization of Mental Illness

Sara McGuire

Faculty Mentor: David Schary, Ph.D.

There is a strong stigma toward mental health and illness among collegiate student-athletes because of the expectation that they are mentally and physically tough. The stigma surrounding seeking help for a mental illness is only one of the barriers that deters student-athletes from taking control of their own mental health. The demands put on student-athletes, both on the field and off, put them at an increased risk to suffer from a mental illness, yet they shy away from seeking help. Athletes who are both physically and mentally healthy create a successful team on and off the field, thus emphasizing the importance of good mental health. This presentation will discuss the student-athlete stigmatization of mental illness, including perceptions of mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional help.

Poster Number: 005

The Effects of Protein Timing on Performance Measures in Athletes

Heath Byrd, Winthrop University

Protein is an essential macronutrient in the diet and is important for successful athletic performance. Current research headlines the importance of overall protein intake and its relation to physical performance measures. However, the purpose of this study was to provide a connection between athletes’ performance and protein timing, specifically examining the number of protein servings throughout the day. This was studied at a university in the Southeastern United States and included 13 NCAA Division I baseball players, all of whom consented to participate. Data collection consisted of a 24-hour dietary and physical activity recall that was completed by each player one day prior to testing. On the day of testing, the athletes’ BIA measurements were recorded, and then each athlete participated in three trials of a vertical jump test and one trial of a 30-yard sprint test. The analysis represented a trend that a higher number of protein servings resulted in increased vertical jump and decreased sprint times. However, this was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the study’s limited sample size. The application of this study examines protein timing in relation to athletic performance, but also posits that a distribution of protein throughout the day is beneficial for athletes.

Poster Number: 006

Emotional Maturity in Athletes


Ashlynn Harris

Faculty Mentor: David Schary, Ph.D.

Emotional maturity is the ability to handle and assess situations without escalating them. This is a key lesson that most athletes learn at an early age due to the higher demands placed upon them. The age that one matures plays a role in decision-making, behavior, regulation, and methods of emotional expression. Those four components are the key aspects of emotional maturity. Previous research conducted by Tamminen (2016) has shown that athletes feel that their emotional expression has an impact on others around them. This is important to study, as the emotional side of athletes is often overshadowed by their physical performance. This presentation will discuss the difference in emotional maturity in athletes versus non-athletes.

Poster Number: 007

College Students’ Perceptions of Athlete versus Non-Athlete Privilege

Megan Loveland, Winthrop University
Karina Grant, Winthrop University
Vijay Mishra, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Merry Sleigh, Ph.D.

This study examines the construct of “athlete privilege,” modeled after constructs such as “white privilege.” Participants were 146 college students (60% Caucasian; 82% women), with a mean age of 20.62 (SD = 1.31). Division 1 athletes comprised approximately one third of the sample. Participants were randomly assigned to read a paragraph that described either “athlete privilege” (e.g., favored status, funding, excused absences) or “non-athlete privilege” (e.g., more free time, less pressure, less stress). Participants then responded to items to assess their attitudes about athletes and non-athletes, as well as scales to measure entitlement, envy, pride, and life satisfaction. Results mostly supported our predictions. College students did not agree equally with our two paragraphs about privilege. Instead, students agreed more that athlete privilege exists than non-athlete privilege. Participants were then asked to imagine themselves in the other group, athletes and non-athletes felt they would have privileges that they did not currently enjoy if they switched places. Athletes thought life would be easier, while non-athletes thought their social prestige would be higher; these perceptions may reflect stereotypes or perhaps some truth. College students who were more envious, more entitled, less proud, or less satisfied were more upset about athlete privileges. Although both groups saw benefits of being in the other group, each group also admitted that they experience privilege. The privileges of athletes, however, seemed to be either more salient or desirable for college students.