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Friday, April 24th

Poster Number: 093

Examining the Impact of New Rule Changes on the Perception of Major League Baseball amongst Casual and Diehard Fans

David Winston, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

Over the past few years, Major League Baseball has taken steps to fix the problems that are plaguing the game, including the slow pace of play and the inconsistency or inaccuracy of officials’ calls. Major League Baseball has introduced rules that are common in other sports, like instant replay challenges, but they have also introduced the idea of new radical rule changes that may cause certain sets of fans to become upset. This study examined the impact of new rule changes in Major League Baseball and how these rules have impacted the way fans have viewed Major League Baseball. In this study, fans were asked several questions about the new rule changes that could be introduced in the game and what they thought about these rules. The rules that they were asked about included the pitch clock, instant replay challenges, the use of a robot umpire, letting players steal first and putting a runner on second in extra innings. The conclusion of this research indicated that there were no significant findings. This showed that different types of fans would not view Major League Baseball differently even if all of these rule changes were implemented.

Poster Number: 094

Examining Travel Motives of College Football Away Games

Justin Rhode, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

College football requires attendees to dedicate their free time to be in attendance. For college football away games, attendees have to dedicate more free time than for home games due to traveling. External and internal motives both play a key part in whether spectators decide to travel to a college football away game. The lack of research provided on spectator motivation to travel to away games drove this research idea. With decreased attendance becoming an issue in college football, this study can provide useful information to various athletic departments. Data were analyzed using quantitative analysis. 176 participants participated in this research. Results showed that factors related to expense were the most important ones considered by college football fans. Therefore, college athletics needs to understand the fans’ willingness to spend more monetarily on traveling to away games.

Poster Number: 095

Fans’ Emotional Reactions during a Live Sporting Event: Examination of Twitter during National Football League (NFL) Game

Caroline Rowell, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

This research focused on understanding and analyzing sports fans’ emotional reactions during a live sporting event through Twitter. Technology and usage of social media arouse in the sports world. One major social media platform that stood out was Twitter and how researchers are transforming Twitter into more ways to interact with fans and gain access to live game stats. Data were collected by gathering tweets generated during the Carolina Panthers—Tennessee Titans football game that was played on November 3, 2019. The game started at 1 p.m., and 100 tweets were collected for each hour during a 3-hour window. A majority of the tweets came from the Carolina Panthers’ official Twitter pages, highlight tweets from ESPN, and Game Center Twitter pages. Tweets were compiled from major plays that occurred throughout the game, such as touchdowns, sacks, field goals, and poor play-calling. Collected tweets were categorized into 4 different emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, enjoyment, frustration). These tweets were analyzed to examine fans’ positive or negative emotional status during the sporting event. Furthermore, the analysis provided better understanding of what plays cause fans to react more and what main emotions drive them to tweet throughout the live sporting event.

Poster Number: 096

Problems with the NFL Collective Bargaining Agreement in Comparison with NBA and MLB Collective Bargaining Agreements

Morris Buckery, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the plague of three major league sports groups (e.g., NFL, NBA, MLB) and possibly find solutions to create better collective bargaining agreements. Research questions included “Are there problems with the lack of guaranteed contracts in the NFL?” and “How can the revenue split between NFL players and owners be changed, so that players can make more money?” These were major problems in the NFL that the NBA and MLB have been successful at combating. Therefore, investigating and benchmarking the NBA and MLB enabled examination of the NFL’s collective bargaining agreement. The analysis conducted was to compare what these leagues are doing now and what the NFL could do to fix these problems, which could help reduce the plagues that impact the growth of the league and its fan base.

Poster Number: 097

Motivation to Participate in Adaptive Cycling among Disabilities

Mollie Barron, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

The factors that encourage individuals to participate in adaptive sports are often the same motivations a person would have to be part of non-adapted sports. Those individuals motivated to pursue adaptive cycling have a unique perspective of these encouraging factors. Adaptive cycling offers countless variations of equipment, allowing for most any person with a physical restriction to be a part of the sport. Cycling, adapted or otherwise, inspires strength, independence, an escape from normal life, a way to socialize with old and new friends, and a hobby that builds physical capability and internal self-perception. These outcomes are often major motivations an athlete may have. Understanding these motivations could help further the sport industry’s inclusion of all athletes, regardless of physical ability, thereby allowing those who may not usually be able to participate in community activities to be welcomed and encouraged to get involved in the ways that matter deeply to them. This level of care goes a step farther than meeting ADA requirements and demonstrates a unique and welcoming perspective to the recreation and sport community. This research will explore the motivations people with and without physical restrictions have to cycle that are deeper than rehabilitation and competition.

Poster Number: 098

Examining the Psychometric Evaluation of How Consumers Purchase Game Day Tickets

Gweneshia Wadlington, Winthrop University

Faculty Mentor: Jinwook (Jason) Chung, Ph.D.

Why do consumers use Ticketmaster’s ticket purchasing app over other forms of ticket purchasing? Is its use due to its popularity among sponsors who partner with the site to sell their event day tickets? Is its popularity among consumers just coincidental? Or is it only because consumers are unaware of other ticket vendors? The purpose of this research is to focus on why consumers commit to a specific ticket generating app versus buying the tickets elsewhere or purchasing paper tickets from the team they are supporting, and to understand the psychometric evaluation of why the consumers do so. The data for this research were collected by conducting a 14-question survey over the course of three weeks. The survey collected data on demographics, mediums used, and sociological mindsets of respondents. It was concluded that the data collected weren’t enough to show any significant difference between either of the four mobile websites that were researched. Results of this study can be used in sports to understand consumers and their thinking, similar to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, and to understand why they gravitate to one specific mobile app and the underlying purpose for their brand loyalty towards that app, evaluating their psychometrics.

Poster Number: 099

Yoga Practitioners’ Chosen Facility Based on Their Motives for Practice and its Implications in Marketing Strategies

Cherilyn Heintz, Winthrop University

Yoga in a modern and Americanized sense has skewed from its original intent. There has been a shift from a spiritually sacred practice to a trendy commercialized exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a significant difference in motivation for yoga practitioners who practice at a yoga studio versus those who practice at a recreation center. It is hypothesized that those who practice at a recreation center will have different motivations for practice than those who attend a yoga studio. The key motivations that will be considered are: physical fitness, spirituality, relaxation, community, and price sensitivity. This outcome will be determined by an online survey distributed to those of both populations and analyzed for significant differences. The results of this study help to understand customers’ motivations and contribute to marketing strategy for both yoga studios and recreation centers.