|Friday, April 20th|
Taylor Smith, Winthrop University
Faculty Mentor: Joni Boyd, Ph.D.
Athletes can be more susceptible to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries for various reasons, including improper landing techniques, valgus motions, and imbalanced musculature. Research suggests that female athletes are more prone to ACL injuries than male athletes, although the mechanisms are not clear. This comprehensive literature review examines numerous articles regarding the complexity of the causes of ACL injuries, potential preventative training strategies, and a better understanding of the increased risk of injury in female athletes. The purpose of this literature review is to achieve a better understanding of mechanisms of ACL injuries and possible preventative strategies.
Anna Laine Eastham, Winthrop University
Faculty Mentor: William Schulte, Ph.D.
Sexual assault is an increasingly serious problem for college-aged Americans and college campuses. According to the U.S. Department of Education and Title IX, rape and sexual assault are defined in a variety of ways. These include but are not limited to coercion, or unreasonable or persistent pressure for sexual activity, force, or the use of physical violence on someone physically to gain sexual access, incapacitation, or the state where someone cannot make rational, reasonable decisions and lack the ability to give consent, and other forms of abuse such as physical, emotion, and sexual. The stigma around sexual assault is one of the leading reasons that people that undergo a sexual assault do not report it. This research seeks to understand the culture that surrounds sexual assaults and sexual assault trials in the U.S. Without justice, there is little our country can do to combat sexual assault. The awareness that these cases have brought to our country is changing the way the United States responds to these cases, which is the first of many steps to changing the culture that surrounds sexual assault.
Hannah Jackson, Winthrop University
Faculty Mentor: Robert Prickett, Ph.D.
Within the Marvel Industry, there have been several depictions of Muslim characters; however, Kamala Khan has made a far more significant impact on comic readers and the representation of Muslim superheroes. In making this impact, though, Kamala did not emerge as a confident and unwavering hero but instead experienced an internal struggle as she searched for her identity not only as Kamala Khan but also as her own version of Ms. Marvel. Through an examination of several elements of Kamala’s life, including her origin as a superhero, her superpowers and costume, and her internal struggle to be herself, I argue that Kamala is not able to truly become Ms. Marvel until she reconnects with her identity as a Muslim and learns to draw strength from her faith instead of running from it. In addition, through the representation of Kamala’s struggle with her identity and finding a balance between her faith and heroics, Ms. Marvel achieves several things for her readers. Primarily, the representation of Muslim superheroes is shown to have shifted dramatically to depict a character that struggles with her identity as a Muslim American, accurately represents a Muslim individual, and creates diversity within the comic book world. Furthermore, the messages of Ms. Marvel extend beyond the borders of the pages as the challenges that Kamala faces connect to readers as a whole who struggle with their own individual identities, fitting in with others, and learning to be themselves in a world that promotes uniformity.
Carson Pender, Winthrop University
Faculty Mentor: Leslie Bickford, Ph.D.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fierce sexual tension and anxiety, toxic masculinity and oppressed femininity, and violence as a definition for love in William Shakespeare’s Othello. A time of artistic growth, progression, and rebirth known as the Renaissance was a catalyst for male performance; and the result of this male dominance is the image of a fair-skinned, golden-haired, virginal woman willing to succumb to her husband’s desires. Similarly, jealousy in a romantic relationship was not only accepted but expected. Mark Breitenberg, author of “Anxious Masculinity: Sexual Jealousy in Early Modern England,” asserts “Renaissance treatises on jealousy, marriage, and the ‘proper’ conduct of wives often function as interpretive manuals aimed at enabling men to ‘read’ correctly the signs of women’s sexual behavior.” Othello’s aggressions emanate from his assumption that Desdemona has been sleeping with other men despite her faithfulness to Othello, perpetuating the notion that women who are sexual, married or not, must be surveilled. As portrayed in the play, Desdemona, Bianca, and Emilia act as “fruit” to be consumed or “objects” to be purchased. By examining historical, feminist, gender, and queer themes in Shakespeare’s Othello, I seek to prove the damaging and violent nature of the patriarchy in relation to women’s sexual expression, and highlight the impact that the patriarchy has on the current culture. Othello and the men around him are the catalyst for repressed sexual desire and displaced aggression, and the obsession with consumption eventually consumes every character in the play.
Nicholas Kent, Winthrop University
Faculty Mentor: Maria Aysa-Lastra, Ph.D.
Originally, gay neighborhoods appeared in less desirable areas due to the stigmatization of the gay community; but with gay assimilation and acceptance increasing, the communities have developed into something altogether more affluent through the process of gentrification. The effect gay neighborhoods have on the urban landscape is something that remains unclear, and that is why this article seeks to add to our understanding of these communities as both necessary safe spaces and possibly hostile presences for the surrounding lower class communities and people of color. This article seeks to measure previously defined indicators of gentrification in neighborhoods that contain above average gay household presence and determining whether there exists a correlation between gay presence and neighborhood gentrification. I use data from the 2000 and 2010 United States Censuses. Seven states, along with Washington D.C., were selected for their notable gay neighborhoods and representation of multiple United States geographical regions. From this dataset, gay households (head of household being the same gender as second person of household) were separated from straight households (head of household being the opposite gender of the second person of household) and measured by Census tract. Results of my research indicate that in areas with increased gay presence, there is an increase in both income and rented households, mirroring previous research and suggesting that gay presence likely also indicates gentrification.
Robert Anthony Sale, Winthrop University
Faculty Mentor: Michael Lipscomb, Ph.D.
My research is motivated by an attempt to establish a men’s rape and defense class at Winthrop University with the support of Title IX federal law. I was immediately confronted with issues of practicality: the police department conducting these classes for women only could not afford to train their instructors in a men’s rape and defense program. In addition, although we were able to get a petition signed by students on campus (at least thirty men willing to take these classes if they were established), no one signed up for the first offering of the class, and the program was eventually stopped. I began to question how the university police would have confronted a non-traditional gender identity, especially when their basis for separating people into two classes was biologically/sex-driven. Because these gender identities seem to lack certain legal protections, I will be examining gender identity within the American legal system. In particular, my research aims to explore whether strict scrutiny in discrimination cases related to gender identity can be defended theoretically. The foundation of my research is based on the current lack of legal protection afforded to non-binary gender identities at both the federal and state levels and the threat and injury posed to those individuals by discrimination. I conclude by asserting that people with non-traditional/non-binary gender identities occupy a space outside of the narrow legal categories of gender identity, leading to a call for at least a minimal amount of scrutiny for gender identity in these cases.
DIGS 221 Session II, 2:45-4:15 p.m.