Date of Award


Document Type



Richard W.Riley College of Education

Degree Program

Physical Education, Sport, and Human Performance

Degree Name

Master of Science

Thesis Advisor

Joni Boyd

Committee Member

Alice McLaine

Committee Member

Janet Wojcik


Dynamic warm-up, Static warm-up, Length-tension relationship


This review of literature explores the varying amount of evidence available for different stretching protocols included in the warm-up period. The objective of a comprehensive warm-up is to increase core temperature and improve muscle elasticity to prepare muscles for the demands of activity. Static (held) stretching and dynamic (slow moving) stretching seem to be utilized more often, and they are most studied in the bulk of stretching research. There has been less research published on the effect of ballistic (rapid bouncing movement) stretching. The overwhelming majority of literature has found that when compared, dynamic stretching increases power activity performance significantly more than static stretching. Noticeably, most available research using dynamic stretching protocols actually have a mix of both ballistic and dynamic stretches. The few articles that focused on ballistic-only stretches found conflicting results. Ballistic stretching has a stigma of increasing the chance of injury, due to the bouncing aspect. With the repeated bounce at the end range of motion, it may cause the muscle to be overstretched. The available research shows that the extra bounce has aided in increasing flexibility, while not increasing the chance of injury. With ballistic stretching being safe to perform, there is a need for more research to determine if dynamic-only or ballistic-only stretching has the greater effect on power performance.